Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā – chapter 13 (kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga)

Post By: Published on: December 14, 2016 Reading time: 29 minutes


School of Yoga is profoundly grateful to Saṃskṛta scholars and academics Pijus Kanti Pal (pal.pijuskanti@gmail.com) and Dolon Chanpa Mondal for their support in Saṃskṛta transliteration and quality control.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā – chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga (yoga of discrimination between kṣetra (region/ field) and kṣetrajña (awareness of the region/ field).

  • In chapters 9 and 10, Śrī Kṛṣṇa shows Arjuna his actual Self. This obviously confuses as well as amazes and scares Arjuna making him circumspect with respect to his relationship with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, just like a soldier who is confronted with the fact that the person he thought was a friend is actually the Head of State. 
  • In chapter 13, he moves to the next step, and explains how sentience and awareness allow a person to cognise beyond the visible or gross (sthūla) To evolve to the next level, a person should be able to cognise the subtle (sūkṣma) state as well as the causal (kāraṇa) state.
  • What are these states? How does one evolve to the next level of personal development?
  • Before starting this chapter, we recommend that you review,
  • Importantly, one must recognise that development in Yoga is experiential and everything that is said in Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā can only create value when there is introspection and practice.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, verse 1-12.

What are puruṣa, prakṛti, kṣetra and kṣetrajña?

Arjuna said: Educate me on prakṛti and puruṣa, kṣetra and kṣetrajña.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said: This body is the kṣetra (region/ field) and anyone who is wise to its functioning is a kṣetrajña. In fact, many consider me to be the knowledge of the kṣetra. Hence, I will explain the features and functions of the kṣetra.

  • The cardinal elements (mahābhūta), the sense of being the doer (ahaṃkāra), logic (buddhi) and those unmanifested (avyakta), the ten senses (indriya) and five objects of the senses (indriyagocara). Also, desire, repulsion, happiness, pain, intelligence, fortitude and their amalgamations form the kṣetra.
  • To increase knowledge of the kṣetra (kṣetrajña), cultivate selfless-ness (humility), unpretentiousness, non-violence, peacefulness, straightforwardness, service to teacher, cleanliness, steadiness, controlling/ restraining the soul (ātma-vinigraha).
  • Cultivate dispassion towards sense objects, eschew the sense of doer-ship (ahaṃkāra), negativity towards birth, death, old age, sickness and pain. Also, be detached from everything, without intense attachment to the wife, son, home or society. Finally, treat everything with equal demeanour, whether they are desirable or undesirable.
  • By meditating on the soul (self), some can experience the soul in others; others achieve this through knowledge of the Self through jñāna-yoga, yet others by karma-yoga. Also, others who may have no conceptual knowledge, follow paths that others speak of and reach perfection by practicing what they have heard.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga.

The concept of kṣetra (region/ field) and kṣetrajña (awareness of the region/ field).
  • Our body is a kṣetra (region/ field). It has an Identity and we identify ourselves with it. So, when we act, karma occurs and debt (ṛṇa or āgāmi-karma) is created. This debt (ṛṇa) is stored as sañcita-karma (overall debt) by the jīva (soul) and manifests as prārabdha-karma when the time for repayment/ reconciliation fructifies.
  • Just as the body may be considered as an entity with a soul (jīva), entities such as heart, liver, kidneys and lungs as well as red blood corpuscle (RBC) elements within the body that operate independently can also be considered as minor souls (jīva) who also perform karma in their own way and create and reconcile their own debt (ṛṇa).
  • All matter is made up of the cardinal elements (pañca-mahābhūta – earth, water, fire, air and ether) in various combinations and its properties come from its combinations. For example – the heart can be considered as a combination of earth, water and fire; lungs may be considered to comprise of a combination of earth, water and air, and so on.
  • Hence, it can be assumed that the relationship between various entities within a system will remain for as long as there is debt between them. When debt is reconciled, the relationship ceases to exist. For example – the kidneys will function for as long as they have a debt (ṛṇa) with the body and other organs within the body but will fail naturally when their debt has been reconciled. However, when we force the kidneys to function after their debt has been cleared through medication, dialysis or replacement, we are re-enacting the cycle of action (karma). When our identity (asmitā) experiences fear of loss of identity (death), it forces us to incur fresh karma as the old debt (ṛṇa) has been discharged. This insecurity of self-worth (asmitā) is the reason why some people continue treatment and others stop fighting.
  • Also, kidneys will fail when they are abused and if the abuse is on account of free-will, then fresh karma is generated.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā,chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga (verse 12-13).

What is the Brahman.

  • Yoke yourself to me with no differentiation between us, seek seclusion. Also, be constant in the awareness of the self, staying focussed on understanding the concept of the Self, for this is the most exalted knowledge.
  • Now, I will describe the supreme Brahman which neither exists nor not-exists. Brahman envelops all, with hands feet, eyes, mouths everywhere. Also, while Brahman defines attributes of the senses, it has no senses. Though it is unattached, supporting all, with no attributes (guṇas), yet defines the experience of all attributes.
  • Brahman exists outside and inside all beings, neither dynamic or static because of its subtlety incomprehensible, far and near. Also, Brahman is undivided; yet appears as different in beings that are supported by it, generating and destroying.
  • It is the essence behind light, beyond darkness, knowledge which is to be known, its goal, its seat in the heart of all beings. Thus, kṣetra (region) and that which is to be known is described.
  • Finally, those that know this can merge with me.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga.

The concept of Brahman (source).

What is the Brahman? Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad states ahaṃ-brahmāsmi“. This means that the Brahman and the Self or Soul are one and the same.

In Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā – chapter 2 (sāṅkhya-yoga), Śrī Kṛṣṇa, states that the Soul is indestructible. Since the Soul and Brahman are the same, Brahman is indestructible.

Also, Taittirīyopaniṣad states,

ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पुर्णमुदच्यते
पूर्णश्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

oṃ pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidaṃ pūrṇātpurṇamudacyate

pūrṇaśya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate ॥

oṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ॥


Aum! That (Brahman) is infinite, and This (Self/ Soul) is infinite.
Infinite (soul) proceeds from the infinite (Brahman).
From infinity, when infinity is removed, infinity is the balance (infinity remains).
Aum! Peace! Peace! Peace!

Shloka taken from:  https://www.templepurohit.com/mantras-slokas-stotras/shanti-mantra/om-purnamadah-purnamidam

  • The above means that the Brahman is infinite and indestructible, because no matter what is added or removed, its quality remains unchanged.
  • Similarly, since the ātmā, Soul or Self emerges from the same infinity (Brahman), it is infinite and indestructible.
  • As a result, since both are indestructible and infinite, there is no difference between the two (Brahman and the ātmā, Self or Soul).

Brahman is more than the source. It is the source, that which sustains everything and motility. Importantly, it is undivided, which means that it is continuous and everywhere. Also, it is the essence of everything – the energy of the sun, the lighting capability of light, burning capability of fire, enveloping capability of a building, protection capability of a constitution, patriotic capability of a flag etc.

Direct explanation of Brahman is impossible, one can only describe Brahman using correlations and qualities. For example, to experience an approximation of Brahman, stand in the middle of railway tracks and look at the tracks. They seem to merge somewhere in the distance, which we know is not true. This feeling of merger at a distance can be approximated as Brahman.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga (verse 13-28).

Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains prakṛti and puruṣa. 
  • Both, prakṛti and puruṣa emerge from the Brahman. From puruṣa emerges consciousness (citta) and attributes (guṇa) are created by prakṛti.
  • Puruṣa experiences the actions that are caused by prakṛti, this is done through the medium of consciousness (citta). So, experience of pleasure and pain are caused by puruṣa who, seated in prakṛti experiences the guṇa-s born of prakṛti.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga (verse 22).

पुरुष: प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङक्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् |

कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु|| 22|| 

puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijānguṇān ।

kāraṇaṃ guṇasaṅgo’sya sadasadyonijanmasu ॥ 13-22॥

puruṣa, seated in prakṛti experiences the guṇa-s born of prakṛti.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga.

Example – You are strolling down a street and suddenly meet an acquaintance. Happily, you smile but the other person ignores you and walks away. 

Let us review the above transaction.
  • When you are walking down the road with no specific purpose, your mind is generally empty. This is the state of Brahman, a state of peace without any disturbance. While, the actual Brahman is infinite sublime peace, this allusion is for the purpose of explaining the situation.
  • You meet a friend – Your consciousness (citta) recognises another puruṣa (identity). So, you manifest. Here, your puruṣa and prakṛti weave and energising the citta (consciousness) to reach out to the other puruṣa. As a result of the weave, prāṇa flows in the various channels or nāḍīs, increasing your prāṇa-vāyu (incoming energy) and vyāna-vāyu (personality projection energy/ aura).
  • The acquaintance ignores you – The feedback comes through the citta (consciousness) to the puruṣa. Consequently, puruṣa experiences loss of existence/ self-worth (shrinking asmitā or self-esteem) and it shrinks. This changes the guṇa (attribute) balance to predominantly tamas (inertia/ delusion, despondence, melancholy or shrinkage).

Here, puruṣa is the experiencer, prakriti is the manifestation of puruṣa and their weave is svatantra or individuality. Prakṛti and puruṣa manifest from Brahman. Citta is the cognitive transmitter of idenitity which enables both identities (puruṣa) to transact. The ātmā (Self or that unit which represents the weave of puruṣa with prakṛti as svatantra) experiences the situation through the citta (consciousness). Prāṇa is the motility that flows from the transaction of the two entities and the foundation of materiality.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga, verse 29 onwards.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains kṣetra and kṣetrajña.

  • All that is created, comes from the union of the kṣetra (region) with the kṣetrajña (awareness of the identity of the region). Thus, the jñanī (one who has experienced the truth) sees the Brahman in everything – those that perish and those that don’t. Also, such a person recognises that the ātmā (Self) is actionless and all activity is performed by prakṛti. Consequently, such a person merges with the Brahman and becomes that.
  • This ātmā (Identity / Self), has no beginning, possesses no guṇa (attributes), is imperishable, though dwelling in the body, neither acts nor is tainted just as the all-pervading space.
  • Just as the Sun illuminates the world, the Lord of the kṣetra illuminates the kṣetra. So, those that can perceive the distinction between kṣetra (region) and kṣetrajña (controller of the kṣetra), thus they get liberated from prakṛti, and merge with the Brahman.

How puruṣa and prakṛti are connected to life, living and awareness.

  • We can see that Brahman is an integral part in every aspect of the experience, but it is not the experiencer.
  • Puruṣa is the experiencer that uses consciousness (citta) to transmit and receive information.
  • Prakṛti manifests as the expression of puruṣa and their weave changes according to the feedback as attributes (guṇa).
  • Next, prāṇa is the motility that results from the weave of śiva (quanta identity) and śakti (quanta manifestation) which is the building block of puruṣa and prakṛti, but it is inert.
  • Also, consciousness (citta) participates like a postman, transmitting puruṣa’s message to the object and receiving feedback which it passes on to puruṣa. It is also inert, not experiencing anything!
  • Importantly, puruṣa the experiencer cannot express its experience without prakṛti.
  • The weave of puruṣa and prakṛti gives rise to creation and existence of a primary self-sustaining unit called ātmā (soul, Identity or Self).
  • Also, ātmā (soul) by virtue of being the primary unit of Identity is the repository of debt (ṛṇa), but it cannot act without the motility factor (prāṇa).
  • With prāṇa, the ātmā expands by integrating many more ātmā-s to form a body (kṣetra) and interacts with its environment. Importantly, each of these new entities is also an identity/ experiencer (puruṣa).
  • The repository of all karma of a kṣetra resides in the ātmā. So, when prāṇa-vāyu leaves, the body (kṣetra) loses its ability to perform karma and the ātmā has to reconcile its debts (ṛṇa) and get another body (kṣetra).
  • The experiencer, YOU, are acting on the foundation of Brahman, but not engaging with Brahman (That). That is in YOU, but YOU are not in That. This distinction must be understood.
  • Since Brahman is an unchanging, infinite cognitive state of peace, it is called the absolute truth (paramarth-sathya). Everything else is conditional Truth or maya or samvritti-sathya.
  • So, all of us are an infinite, inexhaustible, unrelenting, continuous field of a weave of puruṣa and prakṛti. This infinite creation of individual expressiveness is is called svatantra (sva = self + tantra = weave of puruṣa and prakṛti) or individuality.
  • All entities, prāṇa (motility) moves in the form of an energy-stream or vāyu. These are
    • prāṇa-vāyu (incoming/ life generation motility),
    • apāna-vāyu (outgoing / excretion motility),
    • vyāna-vāyu (ethereal or aural energy motility),
    • udāna-vāyu (upward moving / communication or expression motility), 
    • samāna-vāyu (digestion or circulatory motility).
  • The above five motilities (prāṇa) combine with the five primordial elements (pañca-bhūta) to form five sheaths (kośas) around the body. These are;
    • Sheath made by food (annamaya-kośa),
    • Sheath of prāṇa (prāṇamaya-kośa),
    • Sheath of cognition (manomaya-kośa),
    • Sheath of awareness of the system (vijñānamaya-kośa),
    • Sheath of merger (ānandamaya-kośa).
  • Whenever, one tries to cognise any region, one must recognise each of the factors and be aware of the state of the Self (ātmā) of the region/ field (kṣetra). This awareness (prajñā) is called kṣetrajña (awareness of the region).
  • Anyone who is constantly in this state of awareness is called sthita-prajña (person of steady awareness).
We can dissect awareness (prajñā) further into three levels,
  • Gross (sthūla) – This covers all aspects that can be cognised by the senses (indriya), cognitive apparatus (manas) and logic (buddhi).
    • For example: the world we see around us is made of the primordial elements such as earth, water, fire, air and space (pañcabhūta).
    • All of these elements can be sensed by the sensory system and decoded into what they represent by the cognitive and logical apparatus.

For example, when we shop for vegetables, we look at the gross aspects of the vegetable – its colour, texture and feel to ascertain its health through our sensory apparatus and this is decoded by our cognitive and logical apparatus.

    • Within our bodies, this translates to awareness of the sheath made by food (annamaya-kośa) and sheath of prāṇa (prāṇamaya-kośa).
    • In the body, this is called sthūla-śarīra or cognition of the gross body, which covers awareness of the material aspect of the human body driven by diet (annamaya) and motility (prāṇamaya).
  • Subtle (sūkṣma) The awareness of gross elements is driven by an underlying principle, which is the consciousness (citta).

For example – The internal combustion engine is driven on the principle of “Ideal gas law” which says that increasing the temperature of a gas increases the pressure that makes it expand.

  • The gross (sthūla) element is the internal combustion engine, which is physically available to the senses in the form of earth, water, fire, air and space (pañcabhūta).
  • The subtle element (sūkṣma) is the cognition of the principle of “Ideal gas law” (manomaya) and adapting it to build a system (vijñānamaya) that uses fuel to drive the engine. In real terms, this translates to the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) or more popularly the petrol/ diesel engine.
  • The awareness of this subtle principle (sūkṣma-śarīra) is driven by the consciousness (citta) which takes the principle (vijñānamaya) and visualises it (manomaya) into a gross body (sthūla-śarīra). Any engine designer must be conscious of the design basis which includes variables where it will be used, its usage (desert, mountains etc), fuels etc. 
  • In the body, this is the awareness of the movement of consciousness within the body is called sheath of cognition (manomaya-kośa) and sheath of awareness of the system (vijñānamaya-kośa),

For instance, when you read this sentence, the primary information you see is derived through its physical attributes (sthūla-śarīra), of alphabets and words that are transmitted through a device. However, your experience of the underlying principles (sūkṣma-śarīra) comes from the quality of your awareness as you decipher the information (manomaya) relating to the subject (vijñānamaya).

  • Causal (kāraṇa) – this is the state from which all materiality (māyā) is caused.
    • While the base is the Brahman, it is the launch point of puruṣa and prakṛti and the point where joy of cognitive infinity is experienced. So, this is called the sheath of joy (ānandamaya-kośa).

For example – we know that Archimedes was bathing (sthūla) in a bathtub in a state of null (Brahman) watching the waters sloshing over the tub and his body bobbing. Suddenly, an inspiration occurred (ānandamaya), and he cracked the problem of buoyancy (sūkṣma). The same can be applied to Newton sitting under a tree watching the apple fall down or August Kekule imagining the Benzene ring to be a snake chasing its own tail or Watson to discover the ATGC (adenine-thyamine-guanine-cystocine) model of DNA. This can roughly be approximated as a close application of the causal state (kāraṇa-śarīra).

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga.

Union of the kṣetra (region/ field) and kṣetrajña (awareness of the region/ field).

Field or region can also refer to an entity such as a building, society, office, company, country, region, world, solar system and even the Universe. How would it work? 

Let us look at a company and country.
  • A company or country is just an idea… first, there is nothing! This is the Brahman.
  • In the case of a company, someone gets an idea or desire to start one. Similarly, in the case of a country people unite in a desire for a country! This is icchā-śakti. 
  • Next, people make sacrifices necessary for creation of their country. In the case of a company, the promoter sacrifices time, resources and energy to get the requisite technology, funding, people, systems. This is ādiyajña.
  • From the sacrifice emerges a national identity (puruṣa). When it weaves with its own manifestation (prakṛti), a national soul (ātmā) is formed and this is represented by the Government, National Flag and Constitution. In the case of a company, the identity (puruṣa) is established by the articles of association and brand. Puruṣa and prakṛti weave to form and market a product. Vijñāna is market feedback.
  • Prakṛti manifests as guṇa (attributes). Legislature, which represents the people, hence their identity, fears, aspirations and delusions, is predominantly Judiciary, which represents equality is predominantly sāttika and Executive, which runs the country is rājasika, since effort and energy are required to keep all systems functioning. In the case of the company, these guṇa-s are embedded in each department and the way each department functions. For example, a well-run manufacturing department will have quality systems, low wastage and rejection, optimised use of manpower etc. Thus, a good manufacturing department should be low on tamas, but high on rajas and sattva. However, a branding department would need to understand Identity, which is intrinsically tāmasika but must be balanced by sattva so that the brand doesn’t become narcissistic! Quality department would have a mix of rajas and sattva, while accounts would need to be a mix of tamas and sattva owing to the intrinsic need for integrity, ability to say no and accuracy.
  • Kṣetra is defined by the borders of the country. In a company, this depends on the product line and markets as can be seen in the case of Amazon, Microsoft, Indian Railways or Ford!
  • The Head of the country is kṣetrajña (soul of the kṣetra). So, the ability of any Head to understand and define the country’s goals determines how the guṇa-s will mix in its operation. The board, in a company would ideally be the kṣetrajña, but often, it might be the department heads if functions are compartmentalised.
  • If the Head of Government were to be delusional, then all actions by the Government will be predominantly tāmasika. Also, if the Head were to be ambitious, then the Governments actions will be rājasika and aggressive. Finally, a sāttvika Government will adopt a balanced and harmonic approach to all issues mixing reconciliation, aggression and passivity appropriately. This applies to companies as well.
  • The country’s awareness of its position in the external environment is vijñāna and its understanding of itself, its strengths and weaknesses is jñāna. In the case of a company, it would be the strategic as well as competitive environment.
  • Also, the energy that flows through the country which makes the guṇa-s function is prāṇa and encompassing foundation of all experience within the kṣetra (country) is an undefinable state of nothing. Indeed, this applies to companies as well.
  • Finally, the degree to which the leader and people of a company or country are yoked to their country’s identity will determine the seamlessness with which their actions will mirror the requirements of their country.
  • The yoking of people to their company or country is Yoga and the outcome is determined by the mix of situational awareness (prajñā), conditioning/ order and harmony (dharma), sincerity and dedication (śraddhā), knowledge (jñāna) and sacrifice (yajña), which includes effort (karma).
  • It’s amazing, how this ancient philosophy is so universally applicable (sanātana) in every situation as a manual of life and living.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga.

Some contradictions to accepted positions.

Are Brahman and God one and the same? We pray to God, which means that we adopt a subordinate attitude when dealing with God. However, since the Self and Brahman are the same, we adopt an attitude of equalness with the Brahman. Hence, equating Brahman with God, may not be appropriate.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13, kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yoga.

Lessons learned in Chapter 13.

  • Cognition of the kṣetra in its gross (sthūla) and subtle (sūkṣma) aspects is kṣetrajña. Brahman is the causal state (kāraṇa).
  • Puruṣa is the spectator, that which experiences the Self. Consequently, those with knowledge of the puruṣa and prakṛti along with the guṇa-s are able to isolate experience from the Self and are never born again.
  • So, anyone who is attached to these material outcomes will be unable to move from the gross state to the subtle and finally causal state. To achieve this, one needs to move beyond the material by avoiding duality of like/dislike, discrimination between permanent and impermanent (vivekam), dispassion to all objects (vairāgya) and adopt an equal gaze (sama-dṛṣṭi) to everything.

The transliteration and translation of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 13 follows.

The Sanskrit diacritic words are in red italics.

अर्जुन उवाच –

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञमेव च ।

एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं च केशव ॥ १३-१॥

Arjuna asked (1) primordial manifestation and primordial Identity as well as battle field and knowledge of the field (prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva kṣetraṃ kṣetrajñameva ca ।), this I wish to know whatever is necessary to know (etadveditumicchāmi jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ ca keśava ॥ 13-1॥).

श्रीभगवानुवाच –

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते ।

एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः ॥ १३-२॥

क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत ।

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥ १३-३॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa replied (2-3) this body is called the field, he that understands it is called knower of the field (idaṃ śarīraṃ kaunteya kṣetramityabhidhīyate । etadyo vetti taṃ prāhuḥ kṣetrajña iti tadvidaḥ ॥ 13-2॥). Know me to be the knower of all fields, the field and knowledge of the field is cognition of me (kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi sarvakṣetreṣu bhārata । kṣetrakṣetrajñayorjñānaṃ yattajjñānaṃ mataṃ mama ॥ 13-3॥).

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत् ।

स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे श‍ृणु ॥ १३-४॥

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् ।

ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥ १३-५॥

(4-5) What is the field, what is it like, what changes occur to in and in what circumstances, what are its powers, in brief, hear (tatkṣetraṃ yacca yādṛkca yadvikāri yataśca yat । sa ca yo yatprabhāvaśca tatsamāsena me śa‍ṛṇu ॥ 13-4॥). Many seers have chanted various distinct descriptions about Brahman which are decisive and full of reasoning (ṛṣibhirbahudhā gītaṃ chandobhirvividhaiḥ pṛthak । brahmasūtrapadaiścaiva hetumadbhirviniścitaiḥ ॥ 13-5॥).

महाभूतान्यहङ्कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च ।

इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥ १३-६॥

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं सङ्घातश्चेतना धृतिः ।

एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम् ॥ १३-७॥

(6-7) Great elements, feeling that I am the doer, intellect, the one unmanifested and even the ten senses and the five objects of the senses (mahābhūtānyahaṅkāro buddhiravyaktameva ca । indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca pañca cendriyagocarāḥ ॥ 13-6॥). Desire, dislike, pleasure, pain, the steady aggregate consciousness, this field with its modifications has been described (icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ saṅghātaścetanā dhṛtiḥ । etatkṣetraṃ samāsena savikāramudāhṛtam ॥ 13-7॥).

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् ।

आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥ १३-८॥

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहङ्कार एव च ।

जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ॥ १३-९॥

(8-9) Humility, unpretentiousness, non-injury, tranquillity, uprightness, service to the teacher, purity, steadiness and subduing the Self (amānitvamadambhitvamahiṃsā kṣāntirārjavam । ācāryopāsanaṃ śaucaṃ sthairyamātmavinigrahaḥ ॥ 13-8॥). Dispassion towards materiality, absence of doer-ship and even disregard for the affliction of birth-death, old age, infirmity and suffering (indriyārtheṣu vairāgyamanahaṅkāra eva ca । janmamṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkhadoṣānudarśanam ॥ 13-9॥).

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।

नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥ १३-१०॥

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।

विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥ १३-११॥

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् ।

एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥ १३-१२॥

(10-12) Non-attachment, non-identification of the Self with son, wife and family, having constant and even consciousness in the justification of the desirable and undesirable (asaktiranabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu । nityaṃ ca samacittatvamiṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu ॥ 13-10॥). To me, with unswerving focussed yoga of devotion, resort to lonely places and avoid people (mayi cānanyayogena bhaktiravyabhicāriṇī । viviktadeśasevitvamaratirjanasaṃsadi ॥ 13-11॥). Constantly seeking cognition of the primordial Self, the subtle wisdom seen in materiality, this wisdom which is thus declared is the opposite of ignorance (adhyātmajñānanityatvaṃ tattvajñānārthadarśanam । etajjñānamiti proktamajñānaṃ yadato’nyathā ॥ 13-12॥).

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते ।

अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥ १३-१३॥

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् ।

सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥ १३-१४॥

(13-14) That which should be cognised, I will declare, which on cognising one will attain immortality by merging with the beginningless supreme Brahman which is said not to have value nor not have value (jñeyaṃ yattatpravakṣyāmi yajjñātvāmṛtamaśnute । anādimatparaṃ brahma na sattannāsaducyate ॥ 13-13॥). With hands and feet that are everywhere, everywhere with eyes, head and mouth, everywhere with ears, it exists covering everything in the world (sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṃ tatsarvato’kṣiśiromukham । sarvataḥ śrutimalloke sarvamāvṛtya tiṣṭhati ॥ 13-14॥).

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम् ।

असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥ १३-१५॥

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च ।

सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् ॥ १३-१६॥

15-16) Bringing clarity to all senses driven by attributes, all senses removed and unattached, supporting all and even devoid of attributes and still the user of attributes (sarvendriyaguṇābhāsaṃ sarvendriyavivarjitam । asaktaṃ sarvabhṛccaiva nirguṇaṃ guṇabhoktṛ ca ॥ 13-15॥). Outside and within creation, unmoving yet moving also and because of its subtlety, that incognisable is far and near (bahirantaśca bhūtānāmacaraṃ carameva ca । sūkṣmatvāttadavijñeyaṃ dūrasthaṃ cāntike ca tat ॥ 13-16॥).

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम् ।

भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥ १३-१७॥

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते ।

ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम् ॥ १३-१८॥

(17-18) Undivided and in creation existing as if divided, existing as well as supporting creation and know that to be devouring and generating (avibhaktaṃ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktamiva ca sthitam । bhūtabhartṛ ca tajjñeyaṃ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca ॥ 13-17॥). That which is the light that lights complete darkness it is said, wisdom that is cognised, the goal of wisdom, seated in the heart of all (jyotiṣāmapi tajjyotistamasaḥ paramucyate । jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ jñānagamyaṃ hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam ॥ 13-18॥).

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः ।

मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥ १३-१९॥

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि ।

विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसम्भवान् ॥ १३-२०॥

(19-20) Thus, the field as well as wisdom as well as the knowable have been stated briefly. Knowing this, my devotee merges with my essence (iti kṣetraṃ tathā jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ coktaṃ samāsataḥ । madbhakta etadvijñāya madbhāvāyopapadyate ॥ 13-19॥). Know that both prakṛti and puruṣa are also without beginning, know that all changes and guṇa-s are born out of prakṛti (prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva viddhyanādī ubhāvapi । vikārāṃśca guṇāṃścaiva viddhi prakṛtisambhavān ॥ 13-20॥).

कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।

पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥ १३-२१॥

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् ।

कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥ १३-२२॥

(21-22) The act, reason for the act, the actor is caused by prakṛti, it is said. Puruṣa is the cause of the experience of pleasure and pain, it is said (kāryakāraṇakartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtirucyate । puruṣaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve heturucyate ॥ 13-21॥). Indeed, puruṣa embedded in prakṛti experiences guṇa that emerge from prakṛti, which include cause, attachment to the attributes, of one’s value, lack of value, of birth from various wombs (puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijānguṇān । kāraṇaṃ guṇasaṅgo’sya sadasadyonijanmasu ॥ 13-22॥).

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः ।

परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥ १३-२३॥

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह ।

सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥ १३-२४॥

(23-24) The spectator, permitter and husband, the experiencer is the great īśvara, who is the supreme Soul, and so the body is also called supreme puruṣa (upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ । paramātmeti cāpyukto dehe’sminpuruṣaḥ paraḥ ॥ 13-23॥). He who this cognises puruṣa, prakṛti and guṇa-s in all combinations in the state of the present, also he is not born again (ya evaṃ vetti puruṣaṃ prakṛtiṃ ca guṇaiḥ saha । sarvathā vartamāno’pi na sa bhūyo’bhijāyate ॥ 13-24॥).

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।

अन्ये साङ्ख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥ १३-२५॥

अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते ।

तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः ॥ १३-२६॥

(25-26) By meditating into the Self, some can cognise the Self in the Self, others use yoga of knowledge and yet others karma-yoga (dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecidātmānamātmanā । anye sāṅkhyena yogena karmayogena cāpare ॥ 13-25॥). Others, even though not knowing, worship as they have heard from others, and even they also cross beyond death due to their devotion to what they have heard (anye tvevamajānantaḥ śrutvānyebhya upāsate । te’pi cātitarantyeva mṛtyuṃ śrutiparāyaṇāḥ ॥ 13-26॥).

यावत्सञ्जायते किञ्चित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ।

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥ १३-२७॥

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम् ।

विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥ १३-२८॥

(27-28) Anything that comes into existence, the static and mobile, the confluence of the field and knowledge of the field must be cognised (yāvatsañjāyate kiñcitsattvaṃ sthāvarajaṅgamam । kṣetrakṣetrajñasaṃyogāttadviddhi bharatarṣabha ॥ 13-27॥). Equally in all creation exists the supreme Being, he that sees among the perishable the non-perishable is one that actually sees (samaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhantaṃ parameśvaram । vinaśyatsvavinaśyantaṃ yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati ॥ 13-28॥).

समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम् ।

न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥ १३-२९॥

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः ।

यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ॥ १३-३०॥

(29-30) Indeed, he that sees equally everywhere, as the baseline the Being, that Self is not destroyed, the self then goes to the supreme goal (samaṃ paśyanhi sarvatra samavasthitamīśvaram । na hinastyātmanātmānaṃ tato yāti parāṃ gatim ॥ 13-29॥). He who cognises that all actions are performed by prakṛti alone, that seer also is a Self which becomes actionless (prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni sarvaśaḥ । yaḥ paśyati tathātmānamakartāraṃ sa paśyati ॥ 13-30॥).

यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति ।

तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा ॥ १३-३१॥

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः ।

शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥ १३-३२॥

(31-32) When one sees all creation is as the same entity, from that development onward he becomes Brahman (yadā bhūtapṛthagbhāvamekasthamanupaśyati । tata eva ca vistāraṃ brahma sampadyate tadā ॥ 13-31॥). Without beginning, without attributes, this imperishable supreme Self, though in the body, does not act nor is it tainted (anāditvānnirguṇatvātparamātmāyamavyayaḥ । śarīrastho’pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate ॥ 13-32॥).

यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते ।

सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥ १३-३३॥

यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः ।

क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥ १३-३४॥

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।

भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ॥ १३-३५॥

(33-35) Just as ether exists everywhere in a subtle manner but does not get tainted, the Self exists everywhere in the body but is not tainted (yathā sarvagataṃ saukṣmyādākāśaṃ nopalipyate । sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate ॥ 13-33॥). Just as this one Sun lights the whole field, similarly the Brahman illuminates everything (yathā prakāśayatyekaḥ kṛtsnaṃ lokamimaṃ raviḥ । kṣetraṃ kṣetrī tathā kṛtsnaṃ prakāśayati bhārata ॥ 13-34॥). So, the distinction between the field and knower of the field is by cognition of wisdom that liberation of creation from prakṛti and those that know go to the Supreme (kṣetrakṣetrajñayorevamantaraṃ jñānacakṣuṣā । bhūtaprakṛtimokṣaṃ ca ye viduryānti te param ॥ 13-35॥).

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