Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā – chapter 10 (vibhūti-yoga)

Post By: Published on: December 15, 2016 Reading time: 25 minutes


School of Yoga is profoundly grateful to Saṃskṛta scholars and academics Pijus Kanti Pal (pal.pijuskanti@gmail.com) and Dolon Chanpa Mondal for their support in Saṃskṛta transliteration and quality control.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 10, vibhūti-yoga (yoga of splendour).

Introduction and synopsis.

In this chapter, Śrī Kṛṣṇa speaks about himself in detail as one who has no origin but also as the host of all creation. He goes on to describe himself as logic (buddhi), knowledge of the Self (jñāna), lack of delusion (asammoha), forgiveness (kṣamā), truth (satya), self-control (dama), quietness/ calmness (śama), contentment (sukha), and grief (duḥkha).

Also, he covers opposites, such as being existence (bhāva), non-existence (a-bhāva), fear (bhaya), lack of fear (a-bhaya). Next, he covers sentiment, such as non-violence (ahimsā), treating all equally (samatā), contentment (tuṣṭi), austerity (tapas), charity (dāna), fame (yaṣa) and defame (a-yaṣa). Following this, he covers himself as being the creation and capability of the seven seers (maharṣi), 4 ancient manus and all evolution.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains his manifestation.

In answering Arjuna’s question – “how does one know you, what process should one follow to reach you? Tell me your powers and attributes for I am not satisfied by these words”, Śrī Kṛṣṇa details his manifestation, covering nearly every quality known to us, such as both desirable and undesirable, addition and subtraction of value, harmony and chaos.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa says – I am the Self, seated in the hearts of all beings. Also, I am the beginning, middle and end. Of the Adityas, I am Viṣṇu; among luminaries, I am the Sun; of the Maruts, I am Marichi; among stars, I am the Moon.

Next, he says that of the Vedas, I am Saman; among Devas, I am Vasava; of the senses, I am cognition. Among living beings, I am awareness. Then, of the Rudras, I am Śankara; among Yakṣas and Rākṣasas, I am Vitteśa (Kubera); of Vasus, I am Pāvaka; among mountains, I am Meru. 

Additionally, he says – among priests I am Bṛhaspati; of warriors, I am that of Skanda; among water bodies, I am the ocean. Then, of Ṛṣis I am Bhṛgu and among words, I am the single alphabet (akṣara). Following this, he says – of sacrifices, I am japa; among immovable things, the Himālayas. 

Subsequently, he says I am Aśvattha among trees; of Devarṣis, I am Nārada; among Gandharva, I am Citraratha; of Siddhas, I am Kapila. Of horses, I am Uccaiḥśravas; among elephants, I am Airāvat; of men, the king. Of weapons, I am the thunderbolt; among cows, I am Kāmadhenu; of progenitors, I am Kandarpa (Cupid); among serpents, I am Vāsuki. Also, among snakes, I am Ananta; of water deities, I am Varuna; of the manes (ancestors), I am Aryama. Lastly, among regulators of death, I am Yama and, among devotees, I am Prahalāda.

Finally, of reckoners, I am Time.

Following this he says – I am the lion among beasts and Garuḍa among birds. Of purifiers, I am the wind; among wielders of weapons, I am Rāma; of fishes, I am the crocodile; among streams, I am Gaṅgā. 

Importantly, he declares that in creation, I am the beginning, middle and end; in knowledge, I am the knowledge of the self. I am logic in any conversation. I am indestructibility in the alphabet, the duality in compound words. Also, I am everlasting time and dispenbser, existing everywhere. Finally, I am all devouring death; prosperity in the prosperous.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa also says that of feminine qualities, I am fame, fortune, speech, memory, intelligence, firmness and forgiveness. Of Sāmas, I am bṛhatsāma; among meters, I am gāyatrī; among months, I am mārgaśīrṣa; of seasons, I am spring. 

Following this, he declares that I am risk taking in the gambler and the splendour of the splendid. Also, I am the effort in victory; truth in the truth. Of the Vṛṣṇis I am Vāsudeva; among Pāṇḍavas, I am Arjuna; of Sages, I am Vyāsa; among poets, I am Uśanā.

Then, Śrī Kṛṣṇa states that I am the rod of justice; the diplomacy among diplomats. Also, I am silence in the secret; knowledge of the wise. I am seed of all creation; nothing – sentient or insentient can exist without me.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 10, vibhūti-yoga.

The concept of power and dharma.

एवं सर्वं स सृष्ट्वैदं मां चाचिन्त्यपराक्रमः ।
आत्मन्यन्तर्दधे भूयः कालं कालेन पीडयन् ॥ ५१ ॥

evaṃ sarvaṃ sa sṛṣṭvaidaṃ māṃ cācintyaparākramaḥ |
ātmanyantardadhe bhūyaḥ kālaṃ kālena pīḍayan
 || 51 ||

Thus, repeatedly suppressing time (of dissolution) by time (of creation and maintenance), he of inconceivable power, created all this and also myself; [he directed me to maintain it] and then disappeared within himself (51)

Manusmṛti verse 1.51.

(Thanks to – https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/manusmriti-with-the-commentary-of-medhatithi/d/doc145468.html.

Manusmṛti is another document which deals with creation, maintenance and dissolution of the Universe. One aspect that is not dealt with any of the ancient texts is power, hierarchy of power and its subtlety, possibly because most of the ancient documents are instruction heavy, meant to be discussed and followed.

However, Manusmṛti 1.51 gives one an opening that Brahman created the Universe by suppressing dissolution, which is the primordial use of power. Also, this means that within existence, a primordial instinct to life overwhelms dissolution or destruction. A question that we answer later in this chapter… why are we afraid to die?

Dharma of power and hierarchy.

To begin, both power and hierarchy flow from dharma (natural state or conditioning). From dharma comes availability of capability to exercise power and this determines hierarchy. Each genus or family is designed within an intra-genus power hierarchy called the ecological pyramid. For example, on land:

  • Grass struggles to stay alive and regenerates itself after fires ravage it, storms flatten it and summer heat dries it. This proves the hierarchy of creation over dissolution, life over destruction.
  • Next, grass does not voluntarily give itself up to become food for a goat. The goat seizes it to nourish itself.
  • Similarly, a goat does not offer itself as food to a carnivore, it is taken as food and life is given away in pain and in a struggle.
  • Similarly, on water; microbes get eaten by small insects which get eaten by amphibians that get eaten by small fishes. These small fishes then get devoured by larger fishes and this goes on until the top of the pyramid, which is the shark. When it comes to amphibians, the crocodile is the apex predator.
  • On top of this chain is man. Man is the apex predator of all that exists.

There is power hierarchy within a genus also. The dharma of a lion is to lead a pride of lionesses but that position is constantly challenged and the lion has to regularly fight off other lions competing for his pride. This is applicable to all animals, where application of power decides who leads and who does not.

Power hierarchy affects humans also. Since man has no competitor, it becomes necessary to control him with conditioning (dharma) so that there is order.

  • Socially, while the varṇa system is equal by design, it becomes stratified by application of power. Those that influence and change society are more powerful than those that follow them.
  • Politically, the ruler or head of a country is more powerful than a bureaucrat, just as a law-maker is more powerful than a law-dispenser. There is a continuous struggle for supremacy between various leaders that rise on the foundations of specific expertise such as knowledge, armed capability, financial strength, communication, religiosity and public influencers.
  • Countries have a varṇa We have super-powers, regional-powers, religious powers and other powers, first-world, second-world etc., all moving up and down the hierarchy scale. For example: super-powers of the nineteenth century such as Great Britain, France, Soviet Union and others have moved out and others such as United States and China now rival each other to be at the top of the pyramid.
  • Business too has a varṇa. Large companies often dictate design, operations and financial rules to smaller peers and suppliers who have no option but to submit in order to survive. 
  • The varṇa system exists in management also. The chairman of the board of a company sits at the top of the chain with department heads below him, who have a structure that they have power and control over. 

There is no equality in the hierarchy and it is not static. In business too, the entity that positions itself best and is most profitable, becomes the leader of that business. However, that is dynamic, for example- Ford became the market leader with the introduction of Model T, but lost its leadership when it did not innovate. Similarly, the other large American automotive companies lost their power when companies from other countries overtook them. So, power is dynamic and changes with karma (both āgāmi as well as prārabdha).

In short, Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that he is everything that is apex in creation. He is that which creates, controls and maintains.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains the summary of his manifestation.

There is no end to my divine manifestation, this is but a small exposition of my capabilities. Whatever glorious, prosperous and powerful exists, know that to have come from me. Indeed, there is no need for micro knowledge for I support the universe with a fragment of myself.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 10, vibhūti-yoga.

What is Śrī Kṛṣṇa trying to say in this chapter?

Where is Śrī Kṛṣṇa positioning himself? He seems to be saying that he is everything in everything! What does that mean?

  • We have already established that the imperishable Brahman is the source, everything that emerges is karma in the form of sacrifice (yajña) and Śrī Kṛṣṇa is ādiyajña (primordial sacrifice/ transformation or change).
  • Since, he is ādiyajña, Śrī Kṛṣṇa has transcended material existence and has merged with the source (Brahman). This allows him to participate and become the underwriting quality of all entities (ātma-s) without becoming involved in their experience of existence.
  • Additionally, it is important to differentiate Śrī Kṛṣṇa the person from Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the state of existence. Unfortunately, since Śrī Kṛṣṇa the person is seen to be advising Arjuna in the Bhagavad-gītā, there is great possibility of confusing one with the other.
  • In fact, in chapter 9, Śrī Kṛṣṇa cautions Arjuna, saying that the human form that he has is māyā, and advising him to stop getting attached to his human form. Unfortunately, this does not help Arjuna and we continue to see Arjuna struggling with this confusion throughout Mahabharata. So, there is reason to believe that an ordinary practitioner would end up confusing Śrī Kṛṣṇa the person from Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the yogi.

In this chapter, Śrī Kṛṣṇa chooses his state to be the apex of each genus, category or state, sitting on top of all hierarchy. He is the source and dispenser of the natural state, conditioning (dharma) and primordial power. This circles back to the starting point, which is the sacrifice (yajña). With Śrī Kṛṣṇa being the primordial sacrifice (ādiyajña), it is not hard to see how that state automatically confers commensurate capability. Again, this confirms the hypothesis that Śrī Kṛṣṇa is a state and not a person.

What is the role of sacrifice in existence? How does Śrī Kṛṣṇa claim so may roles?

  • Logic (buddhi), knowledge of the Self (jñāna), lack of delusion (asammoha), forgiveness (kshamā), truth (satya), self-control (dama), quietness/ calmness (śama), contentment (sukha), grief (duḥkha), existence (bhāva), non-existence (abhāva), fear (bhaya), lack of fear (abhaya) – All of the above aspects can be classified as aspects of living that characterise discrimination, grace and dispassion. All require a person sacrifice his or her baser instincts and aspire for a nobler and moral life. This sacrifice is the quality of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
  • Non-violence (ahiṃsā), treating all equally (samatā), contentment (tuṣṭi), austerity (tapa), charity (dāna), fame (yaśa), defame (ayaśa) are aspects of self-control. This requires that a person have the ability to face criticism, derision, pain and suffering with equanimity and dispassion, and this requires sacrifice of fear, pettiness and selfishness. 
  • Mother and Father – Without doubt, parents sacrifice for their children. Importantly, they give time, effort, money and emotional strength, without expectation of return. This is the foundation of sacrifice and building of society.
  • Time – All activity is based on time; our thoughts and perceptions change with time. Every changing situation requires adjustment, which is a sacrifice. Here, the sacrifice is laziness, fear of outcome, expectation and fear of loss of self-worth.
  • Among living beings, I am awareness – Awareness is that aspect which drives one’s ability to live effectively in the environment. It requires one to move away from delusion, be kind to others in trouble and demonstrate grace and courage in the face of adversity. This is a sacrifice.
  • I am the Self – The Self or ātma is the repository of It is benign to its environment; it observes but does not participate because it is the extension of the Brahman. Its existence comes from ādiyajña, which is Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
  • I am all-devouring death – death is a sacrifice. The body is sacrificed and degenerates to its constituent cardinal elements (ādibhūta = earth, water, fire, air and ether). At death, karma that has come up for dissolution (prārabdha-karma) is closed and the Soul (ātman) is reconstitued as another entity through the reconciliation of its overall karma (sañcita-karma).
    • But, why are we afraid of death? When we die, our sense of Identity dies with us. This sense of Identity (asmitā) is our security, our fragile sheath of existential confidence. At death, this sheath is torn away, exposing us to a fear of loss of identity which creates anxiety.
    • While we may accept the logic that our debts (karma) will require us to take another body, there is no empirical evidence of such an occurrence. Also, if this was to be true, then the quantum of debt that may come up for reconciliation is an unknown. This sense of the unknown is another source of anxiety.
    • This is why Śrī Kṛṣṇa encourages us to spend time preparing for the end in the Bhagavad-gītā chapter 8.
  • Creation is a sacrifice – I am the seed of all creation. Any form of creation is a sacrifice. Something or someone has to give in order that creation may emerge.
    • Seed in creating a meal is knowledge of what is to be prepared followed by sacrifice in the form of money, recipe, fire, preparation technique etc.
    • Similarly, seed for writing a book or going on a journey starts with the need to make the journey. This is followed by sacrificing resources, time etc. 
    • Seed in creation of a baby is the desire for a baby. Sacrifice starts with a mother having to carry the baby for over 9 months. Also, the birthing process itself is very painful, that is a sacrifice also.
  • How is time related to sacrifice? When Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that among reckoners, he is Time (verse 33), what does he mean?
    • For example, when we are enjoying a movie or at a party, time moves very fast. Conversely, when we are awaiting results of an exam, or recovering from illness, every moment drags on interminably.
    • So clearly, time is a derived concept, it does not actually exist!
    • What exists is consciousness (citta), our cognition of time. It is a one-way street, when the moment goes, it is lost forever.
    • But, to remain in the present, one needs to reach the state of sthita-prajñā (steady awareness) and to achieve it, sacrifice of the Self is essential.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 10, vibhūti-yoga.

Evidence from Manusmriti.

More evidence that time is a function of consciousness and not empirical:

निमेषा दश चाष्टौ च काष्ठा त्रिंशत् तु ताः कला ।
त्रिंशत् कला मुहूर्तः स्यादहोरात्रं तु तावतः ॥ ६४ ॥

nimeṣā daśa cāṣṭau ca kāṣṭhā triṃśat tu tāḥ kalā |
triṃśat kalā muhūrtaḥ syādahorātraṃ tu tāvataḥ || 64 ||

Ten and eight ‘nimeṣas’ (twinking of the eye) one ‘kāṣṭhā’; thirty such (kāṣṭhās) one ‘kalā’; thirty ‘kalās’ one ‘muhūrta’; and as many ‘muhūrtas’ one ‘ahorātra’ (Day and Night). (64)

अहोरात्रे विभजते सूर्यो मानुषदैविके । 
रात्रिः स्वप्नाय भूतानां चेष्टायै कर्मणामहः ॥ ६५ ॥

ahorātre vibhajate sūryo mānuṣadaivike |
rātriḥ svapnāya bhūtānāṃ ceṣṭāyai karmaṇāmahaḥ || 65 ||

The Sun divides the ‘day’ and ‘night’ of men and devas; [of others] what is conducive to the repose of beings is ‘night,’ and what is conducive to activity is ‘day.’ (65)

(credits: https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/manusmriti-with-the-commentary-of-medhatithi/d/doc145491.html)

Some contradictions to accepted positions.

Krishna then says that he is the heart of everything. He is the beginning, middle and end. How is this possible?

  • All activity emerges from desire. There is a desire to project ones thought, reflection or desire. This is called icchā-śakti (strength of desire).
  • If the desire is strong, then the person sacrifices current state of self-worth to project his or her Soul (adhyatma). This is the will (saṅkalpa)!
  • This projection is generally an outcome of prārabdha-karma (debts that have come up for dissolution). This projection requires sacrifice of material resources.
  • When there is a reaction to stimuli, karma is created (āgāmi-karma). A new state is created and the person has to sacrifice old and dearly held positions for current state. This requires sacrifice of baggage, self-worth, delusions etc.

This supports Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s assertion that he is yajña in every form, from the greatest to the smallest, from creation to maintenance and dissolution.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 10, vibhūti-yoga.

Lessons learned in Chapter 10.

Each of us wishes to be an apex occupier of the pyramid that we live in. However, the trip to the top is filled with sacrifice. However, this sacrifice has to be accompanied by awareness which increases one’s free-will so as to enable the person to understand dharma and the role of power in it.

The transliteration of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 10, vibhūti-yoga follows.

Sanskrit words are in red italics. 

श्रीभगवानुवाच –

भूय एव महाबाहो श‍ृणु मे परमं वचः ।

यत्तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया ॥ १०-१॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said – (1) Again, in honesty, hear my absolute word (bhūya eva mahābāho śa‍ṛṇu me paramaṃ vacaḥ ।), that to you to me who is beloved (yatte’haṃ prīyamāṇāya), I will declare for your wellbeing (vakṣyāmi hitakāmyayā ॥ 10-1॥).

न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः ।

अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणां च सर्वशः ॥ १०-२॥

यो मामजमनादिं च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम् ।

असम्मूढः स मर्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥ १०-३॥

(2-3) All of wise and great ṛṣis do not know my origin (na me viduḥ suragaṇāḥ prabhavaṃ na maharṣayaḥ ।) I am the beginning for devas (ahamādirhi devānāṃ) and great ṛṣis completely (maharṣīṇāṃ ca sarvaśaḥ ॥ 10-2॥). He who knows me as unborn, without beginning and as the Lord of the world (yo māmajamanādiṃ ca vetti lokamaheśvaram ।), he is undeluded of all mortals because all his blemishes are cleaned (asammūḍhaḥ sa martyeṣu sarvapāpaiḥ pramucyate ॥ 10-3॥).

बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसम्मोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः ।

सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयं चाभयमेव च ॥ १०-४॥

अहिंसा समता तुष्टिस्तपो दानं यशोऽयशः ।

भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः ॥ १०-५॥

(4-5) Logic, knowledge of the Self (buddhirjñānamasammohaḥ), non-illusion-forgiveness, truth, self-restraint, calmness (kṣamā satyaṃ damaḥ śamaḥ ।), grief, birth, non-existence, and fear and even fearlessness (sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ bhavo’bhāvo bhayaṃ cābhayameva ca ॥ 10-4॥). Non-violence, treating everyone equally, satisfaction, austerity, donation, fame, infamy (ahiṃsā samatā tuṣṭistapo dānaṃ yaśo’yaśaḥ ।), these different sentiments in beings arise from me alone (bhavanti bhāvā bhūtānāṃ matta eva pṛthagvidhāḥ ॥ 10-5॥).

महर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा ।

मद्भावा मानसा जाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः ॥ १०-६॥

एतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।

सोऽविकम्पेन योगेन युज्यते नात्र संशयः ॥ १०-७॥

अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवो मत्तः सर्वं प्रवर्तते ।

इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसमन्विताः ॥ १०-८॥

(6-8) The seven-ancient great ṛṣis (maharṣayaḥ sapta pūrve), also the four Manus possessed cognitive intuition like me (catvāro manavastathā । madbhāvā mānasā), from them these creatures in the world are descended (jātā yeṣāṃ loka imāḥ prajāḥ ॥ 10-6॥). Those who know the truth of my all-pervading union (etāṃ vibhūtiṃ yogaṃ ca mama yo vetti tattvataḥ ।), they become established in unshakable union, there is no doubt (so’vikampena yogena yujyate nātra saṃśayaḥ ॥ 10-7॥). I am the source of everything, everything evolves from me (ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṃ pravartate ।). Thus, endowed with understanding, the wise adore me with complete investment of their intellectual and cognitive capabilities (iti matvā bhajante māṃ budhā bhāvasamanvitāḥ ॥ 10-8॥.

मच्चित्ता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम् ।

कथयन्तश्च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥ १०-९॥

(9) With consciousness on me (maccittā madgata), the prāna focussed on me, wisdom united with me, and mutually expressing about me they enjoy and are always satisfied (prāṇā bodhayantaḥ parasparam । kathayantaśca māṃ nityaṃ tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca ॥ 10-9॥).

तेषां सततयुक्तानां भजतां प्रीतिपूर्वकम् ।

ददामि बुद्धियोगं तं येन मामुपयान्ति ते ॥ १०-१०॥

तेषामेवानुकम्पार्थमहमज्ञानजं तमः ।

नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थो ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥ १०-११॥

(10-11) To those that are ever steadfast (teṣāṃ satatayuktānāṃ) in their love filled worship (bhajatāṃ prītipūrvakam ।), I give harmony of logic (dadāmi buddhiyogaṃ) by which they come to me (taṃ yena māmupayānti te ॥ 10-10॥). Verily, out of compassion for them (teṣāmevānukampārtham), I destroy tamas of ignorance (ahamajñānajaṃ tamaḥ । nāśayāmy) existing inside their soul (ātmabhāvastho) by the luminous lamp of knowledge (jñānadīpena bhāsvatā ॥ 10-11॥).

अर्जुन उवाच –

परं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान् ।

पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यमादिदेवमजं विभुम् ॥ १०-१२॥

आहुस्त्वामृषयः सर्वे देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा ।

असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयं चैव ब्रवीषि मे ॥ १०-१३॥

सर्वमेतदृतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव ।

न हि ते भगवन्व्यक्तिं विदुर्देवा न दानवाः ॥ १०-१४॥

Arjuna said (12-14) Supreme creator, supreme state (paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma), you are supreme sacred puruṣa (pavitraṃ paramaṃ bhavān । puruṣaṃ), eternal, divine, primordial deity, unborn and all pervading (śāśvataṃ divyamādidevamajaṃ vibhum ॥ 10-12॥). They relate to you, all ṛṣis, devarṣis, Nārada (āhustvāmṛṣayaḥ sarve devarṣirnāradastathā), also dark, pious Vyasa (asito devalo vyāsaḥ), and now please declare the truth to me (svayaṃ caiva bravīṣi me ॥ 10-13॥). I think that all you are saying to me is correct, I think (sarvametadṛtaṃ manye yanmāṃ vadasi keśava ।), truly neither deities nor danavas know you as manifestation of God (na hi te bhagavanvyaktiṃ vidurdevā na dānavāḥ ॥ 10-14॥).

स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम ।

भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥ १०-१५॥

वक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेण दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।

याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठसि ॥ १०-१६॥

(15-16) Only you by yourself are yourself (you have created yourself) (svayamevātmanātmānaṃ) knowest thou supreme soul (vettha tvaṃ puruṣottama ।), creator of beings (bhūtabhāvana), Lord of beings (bhūteśa), diety of deities (devadeva) Lord of the world (jagatpate ॥ 10-15॥). Without reminder, to tell that you are venerable (vaktumarhasyaśeṣeṇa), divine (divyā), supreme soul (hyātmavibhūtayaḥ ।) your power is the reason for existence of these worlds (yābhirvibhūtibhirlokānimāṃstvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi ॥ 10-16॥).

कथं विद्यामहं योगिंस्त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन् ।

केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन्मया ॥ १०-१७॥

विस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिं च जनार्दन ।

भूयः कथय तृप्तिर्हि श‍ृण्वतो नास्ति मेऽमृतम् ॥ १०-१८॥

(17-18) How can I know your Yoga (kathaṃ vidyāmahaṃ yogiṃstvāṃ) ever meditating (sadā paricintayan ।), how and what sentiment (keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu) should I think of you (cintyo’si bhagavanmayā ॥ 10-17॥). In detail again recount the nectal of this powerful harmonising of the soul (vistareṇātmano yogaṃ vibhūtiṃ), and I am not satisfied of hearing this nectar (ca janārdana । bhūyaḥ kathaya tṛptirhi śa‍ṛṇvato nāsti me’mṛtam ॥ 10-18॥).

श्रीभगवानुवाच –

हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।

प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ नास्त्यन्तो विस्तरस्य मे ॥ १०-१९॥

अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः ।

अहमादिश्च मध्यं च भूतानामन्त एव च ॥ १०-२०॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said (19-21) Very well, to thee I shall reveal to you my true divine powerful Self (hanta te kathayiṣyāmi divyā hyātmavibhūtayaḥ ।), in order of prominence though this is not the end of my detailed manifestation (prādhānyataḥ kuruśreṣṭha nāstyanto vistarasya me ॥ 10-19॥). I am ātmā (ahamātmā), embedded in all creation (guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ ।), I am the beginning, middle and also the end of all creation (ahamādiśca madhyaṃ ca bhūtānāmanta eva ca ॥ 10-20॥).

आदित्यानामहं विष्णुर्ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान् ।

मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मि नक्षत्राणामहं शशी ॥ १०-२१॥

वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि देवानामस्मि वासवः ।

इन्द्रियाणां मनश्चास्मि भूतानामस्मि चेतना ॥ १०-२२॥

रुद्राणां शङ्करश्चास्मि वित्तेशो यक्षरक्षसाम् ।

वसूनां पावकश्चास्मि मेरुः शिखरिणामहम् ॥ १०-२३॥

(22-23) Among the Ādityas, I am Viṣṇu (ādityānāmahaṃ viṣṇu), of lights I am the radiant Sun (jyotiṣāṃ raviraṃśumān ।), I am Marīci of the maruts (marīcirmarutāmasmi), of the starts I am the moon (nakṣatrāṇāmahaṃ śaśī). Of the Vedas, I am Sāma (vedānāṃ sāmavedo’smi), of the Devas, I am Vāsava (devānāmasmi vāsavaḥ), of sensory organs I am cognition (indriyāṇāṃ manaścāsmi) and of creation, I am consciousness (bhūtānāmasmi cetanā). Of the Rudras, I am Śaṅkara (rudrāṇāṃ śaṅkaraścāsmi), I am Vitteśa (Kubera) of the protective Yakṣa (vitteśo yakṣarakṣasām), of the Vasus I am Pāvaka (vasūnāṃ pāvakaścāsmi) and I am Meru among mountains (meruḥ śikhariṇāmaham).

पुरोधसां च मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम् ।

सेनानीनामहं स्कन्दः सरसामस्मि सागरः ॥ १०-२४॥

महर्षीणां भृगुरहं गिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम् ।

यज्ञानां जपयज्ञोऽस्मि स्थावराणां हिमालयः ॥ १०-२५॥

(24-25) Among family and head priests, I am known as Bṛhaspati (purodhasāṃ ca mukhyaṃ māṃ viddhi pārtha bṛhaspatim ।), among warriors, I am Skanda (senānīnāmahaṃ skandaḥ), among lakes, I am the sea (sarasāmasmi sāgaraḥ ॥ 10-24॥). Among Maharṣis I am Bhṛgu (maharṣīṇāṃ bhṛgurahaṃ) among words I am the single alphabet (girāmasmyekamakṣaram ।), among sacrifices, I the sacrifice of japa (yajñānāṃ japayajño’smi), among the immovable entities, I am the Himālayas (sthāvarāṇāṃ himālayaḥ ॥ 10-25॥).

अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणां देवर्षीणां च नारदः ।

गन्धर्वाणां चित्ररथः सिद्धानां कपिलो मुनिः ॥ १०-२६॥

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानां विद्धि माममृतोद्भवम् ।

ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणां च नराधिपम् ॥ १०-२७॥

(26-27) Among trees, I am Aśvattha (aśvatthaḥ sarvavṛkṣāṇāṃ) and of the Devarṣis, I am Nārada (devarṣīṇāṃ ca nāradaḥ ।), of the Gandharvas I am Cittraratha (gandharvāṇāṃ citrarathaḥ), of Siddhas I am Kapila muni (siddhānāṃ kapilo muniḥ ॥ 10-26॥). I am Uccaiḥśravas among horses (uccaiḥśravasamaśvānāṃ) know me to be born of nectar (viddhi māmamṛtodbhavam ।), I am Airāvat among king of elephants (airāvataṃ gajendrāṇāṃ), and among men I am the King (narāṇāṃ ca narādhipam ॥ 10-27॥).

आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् ।

प्रजनश्चास्मि कन्दर्पः सर्पाणामस्मि वासुकिः ॥ १०-२८॥

अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानां वरुणो यादसामहम् ।

पितॄणामर्यमा चास्मि यमः संयमतामहम् ॥ १०-२९॥

(28-29) Of weapons, I am the thunderbolt (āyudhānāmahaṃ vajraṃ), among cows I am Kāmadhenu (dhenūnāmasmi kāmadhuk ।) among projenators, I am Kāmadeva (prajanaścāsmi kandarpaḥ) and of serpents I am Vāsuki (sarpāṇāmasmi vāsukiḥ ॥ 10-28॥). Of snakes I am Ananta (anantaścāsmi nāgānāṃ), among water bodies I am Varuna (varuṇo yādasāmaham ।), of the manes I am Aryaman (pitṝṇāmaryamā cāsmi) of the controllers I am Yama (yamaḥ saṃyamatāmaham ॥ 10-29॥). 

प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयतामहम् ।

मृगाणां च मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश्च पक्षिणाम् ॥ १०-३०॥

पवनः पवतामस्मि रामः शस्त्रभृतामहम् ।

झषाणां मकरश्चास्मि स्रोतसामस्मि जाह्नवी ॥ १०-३१॥

(30-31) Among Daityas, I am Prahalāda (prahlādaścāsmi daityānāṃ) and of the measurements, I am time (kālaḥ kalayatāmaham ।), among animals I am the king of beasts (lion) (mṛgāṇāṃ ca mṛgendro’haṃ) and of birds I am Vainteya (son of Vinatā or Garuḍa) (vainateyaśca pakṣiṇām ॥ 10-30॥). Among movers I am the wind (pavanaḥ pavatāmasmi), of wielders of weapons I am Rāma (rāmaḥ śastrabhṛtāmaham ।), among fishes I am the crocodile (jhaṣāṇāṃ makaraścāsmi) and of rivers I Jāhnvī (srotasāmasmi jāhnavī ॥ 10-31॥).

सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्च मध्यं चैवाहमर्जुन ।

अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम् ॥ १०-३२॥

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च ।

अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताहं विश्वतोमुखः ॥ १०-३३॥

(32-33) Of nature, I am the beginning, middle and end exclusively (sargāṇāmādirantaśca madhyaṃ caivāhamarjuna ।), of knowledge the primordial Self (adhyātmavidyā vidyānāṃ) argument among discussion am I (vādaḥ pravadatāmaham ॥ 10-32॥). Among alphabets I am “akāra” (akṣarāṇāmakāro’smi) and duality in compounds (dvandvaḥ sāmāsikasya ca ।), truly I am imperishible (ahamevākṣayaḥ), the universal dispenser of time (kālo dhātāhaṃ viśvatomukhaḥ ॥ 10-33॥).

मृत्युः सर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम् ।

कीर्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा ॥ १०-३४॥

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम् ।

मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः ॥ १०-३५॥

(34-35) And, I am all devouring death (mṛtyuḥ sarvaharaścāham), I am prosperity and planning (udbhavaśca bhaviṣyatām ।), I am the feminine qualities of fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intelligence, firmness and forgiveness (kīrtiḥ śrīrvākca nārīṇāṃ smṛtirmedhā dhṛtiḥ kṣamā ॥ 10-34॥). I am Bṛhatsāma also of Sāma Veda (bṛhatsāma tathā sāmnāṃ), I am Gāyatrī among meters (gāyatrī chandasāmaham ।), I am Mārgaśīrṣa among months (māsānāṃ mārgaśīrṣo’ham) among seasons, the flowering season (ṛtūnāṃ kusumākaraḥ ॥ 10-35॥).

द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ।

जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम् ॥ १०-३६॥

वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनञ्जयः ।

मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशना कविः ॥ १०-३७॥

(36-37) I am gambling of the fraudulent (dyūtaṃ chalayatāmasmi), the vital power of the glorious (tejastejasvināmaham ।), I am victory (jayo’smi), I am effort (vyavasāyo’smi), I am harmony in the harmonious (sattvaṃ sattvavatāmaham ॥ 10-36॥). Of the Vṛṣṇis I am Vāsudeva (vṛṣṇīnāṃ vāsudevo’smi), among the Pāṇḍavas I am Dhanañjaya (pāṇḍavānāṃ dhanañjayaḥ ।), also of the sages I am Vyāsa (munīnāmapyahaṃ vyāsaḥ), of the poets I am Uśanā the poet (kavīnāmuśanā kaviḥ ॥ 10-37॥).

दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् ।

मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम् ॥ १०-३८॥

यच्चापि सर्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्जुन ।

न तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम् ॥ १०-३९॥

(38-39) Of punishers, I am the stick (daṇḍo damayatāmasmi), I am prudence among the ambitious (nītirasmi jigīṣatām ।), I am silence among secrets (maunaṃ caivāsmi guhyānāṃ), I am knowledge among the wise (jñānaṃ jñānavatāmaham ॥ 10-38॥). I am also that seed of all creation (yaccāpi sarvabhūtānāṃ bījaṃ tadahamarjuna ।), without which creation may neither move not stay still (na tadasti vinā yatsyānmayā bhūtaṃ carācaram ॥ 10-39॥).

नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परन्तप ।

एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया ॥ १०-४०॥

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्जितमेव वा ।

तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसम्भवम् ॥ १०-४१॥

अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन ।

विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत् ॥ १०-४२॥

(40-42) There is no end to my divinity and power (nānto’sti mama divyānāṃ vibhūtīnāṃ parantapa ।). Indeed, I have declared a brief statement of particular aspects that cover my overall power (eṣa tūddeśataḥ prokto vibhūtervistaro mayā ॥ 10-40॥). Wherever there is glory, harmony, prosperity or power (yadyadvibhūtimatsattvaṃ śrīmadūrjitameva vā ।), know that, that is a manifestation of my splendour only (tattadevāvagaccha tvaṃ mama tejoṃ’śasambhavam ॥ 10-41॥). In fact, what use is this multiple knowledge to thee (athavā bahunaitena kiṃ jñātena tavārjuna ।), I support existence of this world with a single part of myself (viṣṭabhyāhamidaṃ kṛtsnamekāṃśena sthito jagat ॥ 10-42॥).

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