Published on: December 16, 2016
Reading time: 32 minutes
School of Yoga is profoundly grateful to Saṃskṛta scholars and academics Pijus Kanti Pal (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Dolon Chanpa Mondal for their support in Saṃskṛta transliteration and quality control.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga (Yoga of sovereign science, sovereign secret).
Introduction – what is rājavidyā, rājaguhya?
- Rājavidyā = rāja+vidyā means sovereign knowledge or understanding the functioning of a kingdom. Rājaguhya = rāja+guhya means sovereign secrets are those underlying concepts that support the knowledge of functioning of a kingdom.
- So, what is the kingdom, this knowledge and secret?
- First, kingdom is obviously the universe that we live in. Next, knowledge is the functioning of this universe and finally, the secret is how a person’s application of free-will at death changes the direction of his
- In fact, Śrī Kṛṣṇa states that direct cognitive experience (pratyakṣa-eva-gamya) is critical for comprehension of this knowledge, which is the gross and subtle manifested and unmanifested aspects of Brahman.
This chapter also brings out Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s role, as explained by him to Arjuna, which makes this chapter significant. In fact, we will try to establish Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s role in Śrīmad-bhagavadgītā as that of a yogī who has attained a supreme metaphysical state and who guides all practitioners in transcending māyā (illusion) to merge with the Truth (Brahman). This will enable yoga practitioners to differentiate the mythological person “Śrī Kṛṣṇa”, from the yogī in Śrīmad-bhagavadgītā.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga, verse (1-5).
Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains himself.
- Now I will explain how yoga can help a person transcend perception and achieve merger with the Brahman through direct experience (pratyakṣa-eva-gamya). Indeed, this process is very easy for those who follow dharma (stay on the path of natural conditioning, harmony or order) and can be achieved through śraddhā (effort that is sincere, dedicated, persistent and filled with patience).
- All existence is pervaded by me as unmanifested Brahman. Also, all exist in me. However, though I support all creation but I do not abide in them. In fact, all entities merge into creation (prakṛti) at the end of an eon (kalpa). Subsequently, they get regenerated at the beginning of next kalpa whether they prefer it or not. Through all this, I remain unconcerned and unattached while I preside over this activity.
- Unfortunately, people get deluded and pray only to my human form, ignoring my truth as the lord of all beings (verse 11). But those that understand me, seek me with single-minded devotion.
- Lastly, people need to realise that they must not indulge in pointless hope, activity without reason or pointless intellectualisation, because these efforts do not increase knowledge of Brahman.
- To understand me, practitioners need to understand all aspects of sacrifice because I represent sacrifice (ādiyajña) and I am present in all sacrifices (verse 16 – ahaṃ-kraturahaṃ-yajñaḥ). Finally, through me, they can reach Brahman.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga, verse (6-12).
Some observations on Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s statements.
- He is the foundation of all existence.
- He also says that all beings created out of prakṛti merge with him and he causes them to be regenerated at the end of a So, he is an animator of prakṛti but not necessarily its creator.
- Creation is not a choice, there is no free-will. All beings are helpless in this whole process of creation, existence and dissolution.
- He is not impacted by actions, and he is indifferent to actions which he induces through prakṛti.
- His control spans the entire cosmos and he is the causal factor for transformation and change.
- Lastly, he says that all knowledge stops when consciousness stops.
Positioning of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
- Śrī Kṛṣṇa says his existence is in the unmanifest condition, which means that that he is the substrate or the motility prakṛti. It is interesting is that he differentiates himself from puruṣa as adhyātman (verse3-4).
- Interestingly, there is only one state above the state of puruṣa and prakṛti, which is primordial sacrifice (ādiyajña), and this state includes manifested (saguṇa) and unmanifested (nirguṇa) Brahman.
- Also, Śrī Kṛṣṇa clearly states that he alone is primordial sacrifice (ādiyajña ahameva) (verse 4).
- Importantly, one must view Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s positioning as that of an entity that has attained a metaphysical state which enables the permanent/ source/ truth/ Brahman to manifest into an impermanent and material state (saguṇa / nirguṇa Brahman).
- It is very easy to confuse the yogī Śrī Kṛṣṇa with the person Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the person, king of the Yadavas, who plays the flute, is friendly to the Pandavas and participates actively in Mahabharata.
- However, Śrī Kṛṣṇa the yogī is a person who has achieved a supreme state of awareness (sthita-prajñā). This makes Śrī Kṛṣṇa an observer, who is indifferent to the outcome of karma, because he has reached the state of ādiyajña (primordial sacrifice).
- In fact, Śrī Kṛṣṇa himself declares that most people do not understand him and confuse his physical state with his real state (verse 11-12).
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga, verse (13-19).
Endowment of sacrifice.
- Firstly, I am sacrifice (ādiyajña), the offering to ancestors (pitṛs), medicine, ghṛta (clarified butter), sacrificial fire (agni) and the offering (hūta). Also, I am father and mother of this universe, dispenser of fruits of action, grandfather, OM, the pure Vedas – Rig, Yajur and Sama.
- For all, I am the goal, supporter, resident and witness. Also, I am the shelter, friend, origin, dissolution, locus, balance and imperishable seed. Moreover, I give heat, withhold and send rain. In fact, I am immortality as well as death, existence and well as non-existence.
- Those drinkers of soma (soma is a drink which was used in ancient sacrifices. The ingredients of soma have been lost, but are thought to contain mild intoxicants) who have attained the three knowledge, purified from sin by sacrifice, go come to me where they stay until they have exhausted merits of their actions after which they return.
- Anyone, practicing any other forms of worship will be endowed with similar benefits provided it is done with śraddhā (sincerity and devotion) because all sacrifice comes to me (Śrī Kṛṣṇa).
Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains the benefits of sacrifice (yajña).
- Firstly, all sacrifices yield merit of the target of sacrifice. Also, those sacrificing to Gods, go to Gods. Similarly, those sacrificing to ancestors (pitṛs), reach the ancestors, just as those worshipping elements, go to elements. Finally, those that dedicate their sacrifice to me (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) will come to me.
- Importantly, the scale of sacrifice is not important. However, quality, devotion and sincerity (śraddhā) are of principle value. In fact, even a flower, leaf, fruit or even water is accepted if it is done with śraddhā.
- Remember, one does not have to prepare a special occasion for sacrifice. Sacrifice whatever you are doing; the food before you eat, gift before you give away, any action before acting, all austerities your words or even the fruits of your efforts.
- Without a doubt, I (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) regard everyone equally and am partial to none. However, those who perform sacrifice, I am in them and they are in me.
- Furthermore, your worldliness does not get affected provided you sacrifice unto me. In fact, with sacrifice, your background, birth, education, status becomes irrelevant. So, focus your awareness on the Brahman and sacrifice unto me and you will merge with me (Śrī Kṛṣṇa).
Sacrifice and Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
So, when one sacrifices his or her action (karma) to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is ādiyajña (primordial sacrifice), one is actually sacrificing into sacrifice, mathematically, this is like adding null to null or infinity to infinity
Finally, another critical concept that Śrī Kṛṣṇa clarifies is that the ability to perform is not relevant. In fact, it is the quality of dedication, sincerity and desire for perfection (śraddhā) that matters.
- Hence, Śrī Kṛṣṇa detaches quality of outcome from quality of input and clearly establishes the ascendency of effort and contribution over outcome.
- Śrī Kṛṣṇa also states that ability to focus on the task at hand with all attention, without excessive worry about the outcome is the crucible of sacrifice.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga.
We have seen that Brahman is infinite and changeless cognitive state of nothingness, which is the state of peace.
Puruṣa and prakṛti
- Brahman experiences an existential crisis and sacrifices itself. As a result, we get primordial sacrifice (ādiyajña). Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that he is this state of ādiyajña.
- At this point, from Brahman emerge puruṣa (primordial Identity or Self or adhidaivata) and prakṛti (primordial manifestation or energy of puruṣa).
- Puruṣa is the static element of Brahman and the experiencer.
- Next, from prakṛti, the dynamic element, emerges guṇa (attributes) – tamas (delusion or lethargy), rajas (passion) and sattva (balance).
- Subsequently, prakṛti and puruṣa weave (tantra) with each other to create primordial karma (action).
- Importantly, all motility comes from Brahman.
- Additionally, when prakṛti and puruṣa weave and there is creation of materiality, this is called (saguṇa–brahman). This is also called māyā (illusion).
- However, there are other conditions when the weave of puruṣa and prakṛti is not perfect;
- Firstly, prakṛti may not manifest in response to puruṣa. For example – often, we do not react to every experience, especially when we are unsure or afraid of the outcome, such as when we are confronted by a bully or fear our safety, jobs etc. At such times, we often just experience great fear, but let the moment go.
- Second, even when prakṛti manifests, there may be no feedback, in which case puruṣa experiences only itself. For example – assume that you are walking in a corridor and you meet and greet a friend. If the friend does not return the greeting, puruṣa has an experience of loss of self-worth, but prakṛti does not participate in the transaction.
- This is called (nirguṇa–brahman) where puruṣa exists but prakṛti is not engaged. For example – we suddenly may have a craving for potato chips but be unable to act on the craving.
Concept – What are ādibhūtas or pañṭcabhūtas?
First, transformation from unmanifested (nirguṇa–brahman) to manifested (saguṇa-brahman) occurs due to yajña (sacrifice). From saguṇa–brahman emerge the cardinal elements (pañṭcabhūta), comrising earth (pṛthvī), water (ap), fire (agni), air (vāyu) and ether (ākāśa). as a mix of the guṇa, tamas (indolence/ delusion), rajas (passion, energy) and sattva (balance).
For instance, when we drive, there is a mix of earth (pṛthvī or car) + water (ap or fuel) + fire (agni or combustion) and air (vāyu or movement, coefficient of drag or resistance).
- Firstly, if we give or take materially, it is solid or pṛthvī (earth).
- Next, when we exchange liquids, it is water (ap).
- Also, fire (agni) is transformation agent that occurs in all effort. Importantly, fire is the only medium that changes the state of anything. For example – fire (agni) transforms ore to metal. Also, when it is removed as latent-heat from an ingredient, it freezes the ingredient. Since it is a predominantly transformative element, fire is considered to be the most important amongst all the primordial/ cardinal elements (pañṭcabhūta). This is also the reason why fire is central to sacrifice (yajña) in sanātana-dharma and thermodynamics is central to science.
- When we move, there is air (vāyu).
- Lastly, our speech is communication or ether (ākāśa)
What is the sacrifice (yajña) in the above example?
- Ability to overcome inhibition or fear to get a job done is sacrifice of asmitā (self-esteem).
- Investing in resources such as car, fuel, coordination etc. is sacrifice of resources such as time, money and effort.
- Willingness to change in light of newer information sacrifice of asmitā.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga.
Let us now look at the concept of matter and energy. Scientists have come up with a theoretical model that the universe consists of ~68% dark energy (an expanding energy that fills the space which is getting created in the Universe), ~27% dark matter (there are spaces in the Universe where there is no matter), ~5% normal matter.
No one is sure how space is getting created, how distances between galaxies are increasing, why there are empty spaces and what is matter.
Does Yoga have an answer?
Let us look at the problem from the concept of Brahman, which is a cognitive state of null. This means that Brahman is a combination of Physics and Psychology. It is not a Philosophy. It is state of existence, the bedrock of creation.
From Brahman emerges puruṣa and prakṛti to create the Universe or hiraṇyagarbha (golden egg), likely though the Big-Bang. The identity of this entity is called Viṣṇu. It’s important to remember that Viṣṇu is the identity and hiraṇyagarbha is the manifestation. One can conclude that Viṣṇu energises hiraṇyagarbha but does not participate in it.
Also, we know that matter is composited of five primordial elements (pañṭcabhūta), comprising earth (pṛthvī), water (ap), fire (agni), air (vāyu) and ether (ākāśa), which occur from the weave of puruṣa and prakṛti, as a combination of guṇa.
All matter has a quanta unit, this comes as the weave of śiva is called śakti that create everything. This weave is called tantra, their union is called yoga and one quanta weave of śiva and śakti is called prāṇa (motility).
What this means is that while Physics/ Science posits that the building block of matter is a waveform which then combine/ recombine to form the Universe, actually, the waveform (śakti) is an expression of śiva.
Physics is unable to prove the existence of Brahman or a Universal identity (Viṣṇu) because of what it is, an identity. But this concept of Brahman answers every question of existence that science cannot.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga
Definition of Brahman – Brahman can be defined as an infinite state of unchanging equilibrium or peace.
- So, Brahman is a state of “Zero Entropy” and “Zero Enthalpy” (there is no heat content or disorder, because there is no pressure, volume or temperature, hence it is not a thermodynamic system).
- It is important to recognise that pressure, volume and temperature are all functions of fire (agni).
- Hence, Brahman is both, a state of null as well as infinite state of unchanging thermodynamic equilibrium.
Creation of the Universe: All creation comes from the Brahman: The consciousness (citta) of Brahman, in a state of infinite thermally inactive equilibrium, becomes aware of itself (prajñā) and experiences existential anxiety and a desire to know itself.
- Consequently, this anxiety manifests as a vibration called spandana (atemporal vibration or pulse).
- Next, from this vibration (spandana) emerges a macrostate called puruṣa (primordial identity or experiencer) that weaves with prakṛti (manifestation of that identity) to create matter. Simultaneously, at a quanta level, the building block of puruṣa and prakṛti is śiva (quanta identity) and śakti (quanta manifestation) emerge.
- Puruṣa and prakṛti weave with each other to create an entity called the ātman.
- At a super-macro-thermodynamic system level, this is called the Universe or hiraṇyagarbha (golden-egg) with its ātman as Viṣṇu.
- This state is also valid in any visible, normal entity or standard thermodynamic closed system like a bird, animal, human, earth, solar system, universe, car, computer, table, chair etc., anything that has a natural state (dharma).
How does quanta yoga work? How is it different from science?
- Śiva manifests from Brahman without attributes as nirguṇa–brahman.
- Obviously, since this is an Identity only, it does not enable Brahman to confirm its existence because there is no change in state or thermodynamic equilibrium.
- So, śakti manifests from śiva and this weave (tantra) with śiva is called saguṇa–brahman because attributes (guṇa–s) emerge from śakti.
- Also, the quanta unit of the combination of śiva and śakti is a unit of motility called prāṇa.
- From śiva emerges consciousness (citta) and from śakti emerges attribute (guṇa).
- Śiva is the static aspect and śakti is the dynamic aspect of their weave. Śiva’s identity experience through its consciousness (citta) and manifests as śakti.
- Śiva and śakti are inseparable and weave with each other continuously. Without śiva (identity), there can be no śakti (manifestation) and without śakti (manifestation), there can be no śiva (identity). This is encapsulated is Ādi Śankara’s soundaryalahiri, stanza 1.
- However, this weave yields no outcome because there is no confirmation of identity of Brahman‘s manifestation.
- Confirmation is activated when another śiva-śakti entity emerges from Brahman and the two entities confirm each other’s existence.
- Whenever there is lack of confirmation of its identity, śiva experiences a drop in identity, resulting is the consciousness (citta) turning inward, which draws śakti inward also.
- The impact of the consciousness (citta) turning inward results in śiva becoming lethargic, which is inertia, mass or tamas.
- The weave of śiva with śakti creates a quanta movement which is called karma (action) and is what we call work in thermodynamics. Energy is created.
- Śakti‘s movement inward creates an electromagnetic force moving inward, which results in prāṇa, a unit of śiva-śakti generating gravity.
What happens when śiva finds another śiva?
- First, how does śiva look for another śiva? If śiva does not find another śiva, it immediately experiences inertia or fear of loss of identity. So, it manifests and starts seeking another śiva.
- Śiva’s consciousness (citta) emerges on the manifestation of śakti in the form of an electromagnetic pulse. This electromagnetic pulse could be light that has a consciousness (citta) constantly seeking another śiva.
- This makes light or any waveform such as an electromagnetic pulse a karma generated by the weave of śiva with śakti.
- Importantly, the outcome of the weave of śiva and śakti is dependent on consciousness (citta), because consciousness is the communication medium between śiva and śakti and determines śakti‘s attribute (guṇa).
- Hence, consciousness (citta) determines how identity/ matter (śiva) will combine/ transact/ experience other śivas.
Creation of matter and energy.
- When two śiva’s connect, they immediately form a bond (bandana) with one another, the two quanta śiva combining to form a complex identity called puruṣa.
- This complex independent identity (puruṣa) weaves its own unique manifestation (prakṛti), and this is separate from its constituent quanta śiva or śakti.
- The unit of puruṣa and prakṛti is called ātman (Soul). Puruṣa then begins to seek with its consciousness (citta) and bond with other puruṣa in the same manner as explained with śiva above.
- Consequently, this results in creation of matter and energy, each entity having a Soul (ātman), which is a unit of puruṣa (matter) and prakṛti (energy).
- When matter (puruṣa‘s) consciousness (citta) turns inwards or becomes negative, energy (śakti) manifests as inertia, tamas or matter. Next, when citta emerges from puruṣa, energy (śakti) becomes positive, and outward flowing expansive, passionate, is called rajas or energy. Finally, when puruṣa and prakṛti find a balance, it is called sattva or natural state/ harmony. The relationship between puruṣa and prakṛti is matter-energy balance and their quanta unit is prāṇa.
- However, the relationship between various puruṣa-s is very unstable because there is continuous bonding with other puruṣa-s resulting in equilibrium being disturbed. Consequently, the cycle of guṇa (attribute), tamas, rajas and sattva are perennial, with each getting ascendancy briefly, depending on the state of puruṣa’s citta.
- The least stable of all three guṇa–s is sattva, because thermodynamic balance or ideal state in entropy is not only difficult to achieve, but also difficult to retain.
Dynamics of the bond (bandhana).
- Within any bond, the two śiva-s have identities of different intensities but neither will leave the bond unless they can find another śiva because they fear loss of identity and the bond is the only confirmation they have of their own existence.
- As a result, the śiva that is more stable is less dependent than the śiva that is insecure.
- This results in inequality of give-take and binding energy within the bond which results in an unequal give-take relationship / transaction between the two śiva.
- Since the give-take within the relationship is unequal, one gives or takes more, thermodynamic work is generated out of the relative movement between the two śiva-s.
- This results in release/ absorption of energy and creation of debt (ṛṇa) because one śiva would have given more (exothermic) than and the other śiva would have taken more (endothermic).
- It’s important to realise that the release or absorption of energy (śakti) will result in a manifestation and generation of another identity (śiva).
- This generation of new śiva (identities) creates unbonded identities (entropy), result in expansion and makes the thermodynamic cycle perennial .
- So, karma is a thermodynamic transaction between śiva-s that results in the production of more śiva-s and since the process is self-sustaining, continuous and infinite, it is called sadā-śiva (perpetual śiva).
- This is why the universe is continuously expanding.
- This debit/ credit is stored in śiva and it has to be reconciled with the other śiva. When this debt or credit is not reconciled, śiva experiences distress or tamas and turns inwards into dark matter.
- The above process which has been explained for quanta śiva is valid for puruṣa also.
- The only change in the case of puruṣa is that since puruṣa is a complex structure of other puruṣa-s, with their foundation in quants śiva-s, the relative movement (thermodynamic work or karma) within a macro entity can be very complex, consisting of many sub-entities and quanta.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga
Normal matter: Importantly, for normal matter, which is the manifested aspect of Brahman (saguṇa-brahman), any weave of puruṣa and prakṛti that results in creation, maintenance and dissolution of pañṭcabhūta-s or lower order of creation / primordial elements with the existence of a Soul (ātman) is normal matter.
Dark matter: When śiva or puruṣa‘s debt (endo-exo thermodynamic balance) is not getting reconciled, then the consciousness (citta) becomes inward looking and incapable of manifestation and the prāṇa or ātman experiences severe tamas or inertia, that is dark matter.
Importantly, when śiva has low identity, hence low motility, śakti also will have low/ no motility (it can move without direction but cannot create) because motility requires śiva to form a bond with another śiva and establish its identity. This cannot occur if śiva is in existential crisis.
Inertia, gravity and yoga: When puruṣa or śiva is in tamas, śakti ~ zero. Consequently, this results in consciousness (citta) moving into puruṣa or śiva which generates an inward electromagnetic force which is the source of gravitational force.
Dark energy: When śiva emerges from Brahman, it experiences fear of loss of identity. So, it manifests as śakti and its consciousness (citta) reaches out to confirm its existence. This is an electromagnetic pulse that is experiencing extreme fear of loss of identity.
Consequently, śakti‘s intensity is much higher than śiva which is ~ zero. This is dark energy in Physics. However, since śakti exists without a strong anchor of śiva, its velocity is solely dependent on the speed of śiva’s consciousness (citta).
Why does light bend: Light is high on energy (śakti) and low on identity (śiva). So, in order to affirm its identity, śiva needs to establish a bond with another śiva. Consequently, śakti needs to manifest and find another śiva. As a result, śakti, in the form of light forms a natural affinity towards any type of identity (śiva). So, then consciousness (citta) finds another śiva, śakti, driven by śiva’s citta bends towards any śiva. This is called gravitational lensing.
This is also the reason why objects light up when light strikes them. There is natural affinity of citta to another śiva for the establishment of a bond and confirmation of identity of its own śiva. So, when śakti finds another śiva, a bond is created between the two śiva-s and both increase in manifestation, this lights the entity, after which karma occurs and there is material creation.
This material creation is always a mix of śiva and śakti in the quanta form growing into puruṣa and prakṛti in the universal form. The five primordial materials of earth, water, fire, air and space get created by the mix of tamas (śiva>śakti), rajas (śakti>śiva) and sattva (śiva=śakti). For instance, earth is predominantly tamas or śiva/puruṣa>śakti/prakṛti.
Interchangeability of light and matter.
- Importantly, the balance between śiva and śakti is never constant, it changes according to the bond that śiva has with another śiva.
- So, first śiva experiences deep sense of loss of Identity which is tamas, this makes śakti move because śiva-s consciousness (citta) tries to find other śiva which is compatible. Finally, śiva forms a bond with another śiva and creates normal matter, which is sattva.
- However, the bond is temporary and dependent on each śiva’s sense of identity-insecurity, hence the bond breaks whenever there is interference from another śiva, leading to a repeat of tamas/rajas/sattva cycle.
- As a result, śiva (identity) may start as normal matter, transform into dark matter (nirguṇa–brahman) or become a weak identity and become dark energy within puruṣa. Also, this state can keep changing.
- Finally, this means that light and matter are interchangeable because they co-exist in the same unit, prāṇa which is the quanta motility unit of the yoking of a śiva with a śakti.
- Lastly, the material entity which is created by the integration of the weave of śiva and śakti in the quanta form growing into puruṣa and prakṛti in the universal form is called hari-hara. This comprises half body of śiva integrated with an opposite half of viṣṇu in sanātana-dharma.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga.
Some contradictions to accepted positions.
- When one reviews the concept, there is a clear point of merger of all knowledge (saṃkhya), be it philosophical, psychological, physiological, physical or scientific.
- The problem seems to be that there is no foundational theory that supports the unity of all knowledge, such as is proposed above and embedded in the ancient science of yoga.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9, rājavidyā-rājaguhya-yoga.
- Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s position is clarified in this chapter as a state of existence; in verse 11, he states that people confuse his human manifestation as reality, which he is not. Then, from verses 16-19, he asserts that he is sacrifice, the materials of a sacrifice, the reason and objective.
- In verse 20-21, he obliquely refers to rebirth and how it functions, while at the same time dissociating himself from the individual’s state.
- So, we can deduce that Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the framework and operation but not the participant.
- Anyone who sacrifices to him specifically, gets rewarded appropriately. This means that while there are different paths, those that sacrifice unto him get direct benefits of surrender. This is little difficult to accept because the deity should not make a difference, it is the input quality that matters.
The transliteration and translation of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 9 follows,
The Sanskrit words are in red italics.
इदं तु ते गुह्यतमं प्रवक्ष्याम्यनसूयवे ।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानसहितं यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥ ९-१॥
Śrī Kṛṣṇa said – (1) Firstly, to you who bears no ill-will I shall declare this truly great secret, (idaṃ tu te guhyatamaṃ pravakṣyāmyanasūyave ।), knowledge of the Self along with knowledge of the Whole, which when cognised results in emancipation from misfortune (jñānaṃ vijñānasahitaṃ yajjñātvā mokṣyase’śubhāt ॥ 9-1॥).
राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् ।
प्रत्यक्षावगमं धर्म्यं सुसुखं कर्तुमव्ययम् ॥ ९-२॥
अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषा धर्मस्यास्य परन्तप ।
अप्राप्य मां निवर्तन्ते मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि ॥ ९-३॥
(2-3) Sovereign science, sovereign secret is highly sacred recognisable by direct experience for the righteous very easy to perform and imperishable (rājavidyā rājaguhyaṃ pavitramidamuttamam । pratyakṣāvagamaṃ dharmyaṃ susukhaṃ kartumavyayam ॥ 9-2॥). People without devotion or righteousness of this do not attain me and return to live and die in saṃsāra (aśraddadhānāḥ puruṣā dharmasyāsya parantapa । aprāpya māṃ nivartante mṛtyusaṃsāravartmani ॥ 9-3॥).
मया ततमिदं सर्वं जगदव्यक्तमूर्तिना ।
मत्स्थानि सर्वभूतानि न चाहं तेष्ववस्थितः ॥ ९-४॥
न च मत्स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् ।
भूतभृन्न च भूतस्थो ममात्मा भूतभावनः ॥ ९-५॥
(4-5) All in this world are pervaded by me in the unmanifested form (mayā tatamidaṃ sarvaṃ jagadavyaktamūrtinā ।), all beings exist in me undifferentiated and not I in them (matsthāni sarvabhūtāni na cāhaṃ teṣvavasthitaḥ ॥ 9-4॥). The embodied living me cannot cognise my sublime sovereignty (na ca matsthāni bhūtāni paśya me yogamaiśvaram ।). Supporting the embodied and living in them my Soul enables them to express themselves (bhūtabhṛnna ca bhūtastho mamātmā bhūtabhāvanaḥ ॥ 9-5॥).
यथाकाशस्थितो नित्यं वायुः सर्वत्रगो महान् ।
तथा सर्वाणि भूतानि मत्स्थानीत्युपधारय ॥ ९-६॥
सर्वभूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिं यान्ति मामिकाम् ।
कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजाम्यहम् ॥ ९-७॥
(6-7) Just as air rests in space perennially which exists everywhere, similarly comprehend this that all creation rest in me (yathākāśasthito nityaṃ vāyuḥ sarvatrago mahān । tathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni matsthānītyupadhāraya ॥ 9-6॥). All beings created out of prakṛti merge with me at the end of a kalpa (sarvabhūtāni kaunteya prakṛtiṃ yānti māmikām । kalpakṣaye). At the beginning of a kalpa I generate them again (punastāni kalpādau visṛjāmyaham ॥ 9-7॥). Prakṛti being my own creation, is generated again and again (prakṛtiṃ svāmavaṣṭabhya visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ ।). All these myrial beings are helpless in the force of prakṛti (bhūtagrāmamimaṃ kṛtsnam avaśaṃ prakṛtervaśāt ॥ 9-8॥).
प्रकृतिं स्वामवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः ।
भूतग्राममिमं कृत्स्नमवशं प्रकृतेर्वशात् ॥ ९-८॥
न च मां तानि कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्जय ।
उदासीनवदासीनमसक्तं तेषु कर्मसु ॥ ९-९॥
मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् ।
हेतुनानेन कौन्तेय जगद्विपरिवर्तते ॥ ९-१०॥
(8-10) Having controlled prakṛti (prakṛtiṃ svāmavaṣṭabhya) I send out again and again (visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ ।) all these myriad creations (bhūtagrāmamimaṃ kṛtsnam) who are helpless before the impact of prakṛti (avaśaṃ prakṛtervaśāt ॥ 9-8॥). These acts do not bind me (na ca māṃ tāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanañjaya ।), I reside indifferent and unattached in those that act (udāsīnavadāsīnamasaktaṃ teṣu karmasu ॥ 9-9॥). The static and dynamic components (sacarācaram) of prakṛti operate under my supervision (mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate), this is the causal (hetunānena) factor for transformation or change in the cosmos (kaunteya jagadviparivartate ॥ 9-10॥).
अवजानन्ति मां मूढा मानुषीं तनुमाश्रितम् ।
परं भावमजानन्तो मम भूतमहेश्वरम् ॥ ९-११॥
मोघाशा मोघकर्माणो मोघज्ञाना विचेतसः ।
राक्षसीमासुरीं चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः ॥ ९-१२॥
(11-12) Disregard this delusional human form that I have taken refuge in know my higher state of being my Lordship over all creation (avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanumāśritam । paraṃ bhāvamajānanto mama bhūtamaheśvaram ॥ 9-11॥). Vain expectations, futile actions, deluded understanding of knowledge (moghāśā moghakarmāṇo moghajñānā vicetasaḥ ।), truly these deluded qualities of prakṛti are manifested in the demonic and those of aasuric qualities (rākṣasīmāsurīṃ caiva prakṛtiṃ mohinīṃ śritāḥ ॥ 9-12॥),
महात्मानस्तु मां पार्थ दैवीं प्रकृतिमाश्रिताः ।
भजन्त्यनन्यमनसो ज्ञात्वा भूतादिमव्ययम् ॥ ९-१३॥
सततं कीर्तयन्तो मां यतन्तश्च दृढव्रताः ।
नमस्यन्तश्च मां भक्त्या नित्ययुक्ता उपासते ॥ ९-१४॥
(13-14) However, souls of exceptional cognition, with divine nature take refuge in me (mahātmānastu māṃ pārtha daivīṃ prakṛtimāśritāḥ ।), worship with a cognition that does not deviate having recognised meas the imperishable motility of beings (bhajantyananyamanaso jñātvā bhūtādimavyayam ॥ 9-13॥). They are always trying to glorify me with effort and firm in their vows and prostrations of me (satataṃ kīrtayanto māṃ yatantaśca dṛḍhavratāḥ ।), worshipping and doing homage with continual steadfastness (namasyantaśca māṃ bhaktyā nityayuktā upāsate ॥ 9-14॥).
ज्ञानयज्ञेन चाप्यन्ये यजन्तो मामुपासते ।
एकत्वेन पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम् ॥ ९-१५॥
(15) Sacrificing all knowledge and sacrificing everything else also, worship me (jñānayajñena cāpyanye yajanto māmupāsate ।), my universal face exists as one, as different, and as multiplicity (ekatvena pṛthaktvena bahudhā viśvatomukham ॥ 9-15॥).
अहं क्रतुरहं यज्ञः स्वधाहमहमौषधम् ।
मन्त्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहं हुतम् ॥ ९-१६॥
पिताहमस्य जगतो माता धाता पितामहः ।
वेद्यं पवित्रमोङ्कार ऋक्साम यजुरेव च ॥ ९-१७॥
गतिर्भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणं सुहृत् ।
प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानं निधानं बीजमव्ययम् ॥ ९-१८॥
तपाम्यहमहं वर्षं निगृह्णाम्युत्सृजामि च ।
अमृतं चैव मृत्युश्च सदसच्चाहमर्जुन ॥ ९-१९॥
(16-19) I am the purpose (ahaṃ kratu), I am sacrifice (ahaṃ yajñaḥ), I am the oblation (svadhāham), I am medicine (ahamauṣadham), I am mantra (mantro’ham), I am also ghee (ahamevājyam), I am fire (ahamagni), I am that which is sacrificed or the offering (ahaṃ hutam). I am the father of the world (pitāhamasya jagato) as also the mother, the elemental substance, grandfather (mātā dhātā pitāmahaḥ), sacred vedam, OM and also Rik, Sama, Yajur. (vedyaṃ pavitramoṅkāra ṛksāma yajureva ca ॥ 9-17॥). Enabler of goals, the Lord, witness, resident, refuge, friend (gatirbhartā prabhuḥ sākṣī nivāsaḥ śaraṇaṃ suhṛt ।), the origin, dissolution, position, the hoard, seed imperishable (prabhavaḥ pralayaḥ sthānaṃ nidhānaṃ bījamavyayam ॥ 9-18॥). I am the source of heat (tapāmyaham), I withold and send forth rain (varṣaṃ nigṛhṇāmyutsṛjāmi ca ।), I am nectar of immortality (amṛtaṃ caiva), I am death and existence, non-existence and I am Arjuna (mṛtyuśca sadasaccāhamarjuna ॥ 9-19॥).
त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा
यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते ।
ते पुण्यमासाद्य सुरेन्द्रलोक-
मश्नन्ति दिव्यान्दिवि देवभोगान् ॥ ९-२०॥
ते तं भुक्त्वा स्वर्गलोकं विशालं
क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्यलोकं विशन्ति ।
गतागतं कामकामा लभन्ते ॥ ९-२१॥
(20-21) The knowers of three Vedas and drinkers of Soma by me are purified of impurities by help of sacrifices pray to go to heaven (traividyā māṃ somapāḥ pūtapāpā- yajñairiṣṭvā svargatiṃ prārthayante ।). They, having become purified reach the world of Indira and enjoy divinity and divine pleasures in divine world (te puṇyamāsādya surendraloka- maśnanti divyāndivi devabhogān ॥ 9-20॥). They that have enjoyed the vast celestial places enter the mortal world when they exhaust their merits (te taṃ bhuktvā svargalokaṃ viśālaṃ- kṣīṇe puṇye martyalokaṃ viśanti ।), thus abiding by the three Vedas, they come and go and seek the world of desires (evaṃ trayīdharmamanuprapannā- gatāgataṃ kāmakāmā labhante ॥ 9-21॥).
अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तो मां ये जनाः पर्युपासते ।
तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां योगक्षेमं वहाम्यहम् ॥ ९-२२॥
येऽप्यन्यदेवता भक्ता यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेऽपि मामेव कौन्तेय यजन्त्यविधिपूर्वकम् ॥ ९-२३॥
अहं हि सर्वयज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुरेव च ।
न तु मामभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेनातश्च्यवन्ति ते ॥ ९-२४॥
(22-24) Those people who worship me exclusively without worrying about others, them I ensure complete and assiduous prosperity (ananyāścintayanto māṃ ye janāḥ paryupāsate । teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ yogakṣemaṃ vahāmyaham ॥ 9-22॥). Even those devotees who worship other deities with complete devotion (ye’pyanyadevatā bhaktā yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ ।), they also worship me alone using an unapproved process (te’pi māmeva kaunteya yajantyavidhipūrvakam ॥ 9-23॥). Truly, I am the enjoyer and sole owner of all sacrifices and those who do not cognise this truth, they fall (ahaṃ hi sarvayajñānāṃ bhoktā ca prabhureva ca । na tu māmabhijānanti tattvenātaścyavanti te ॥ 9-24॥).
यान्ति देवव्रता देवान्पितॄन्यान्ति पितृव्रताः ।
भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्या यान्ति मद्याजिनोऽपि माम् ॥ ९-२५॥
(25) Worshippers of deivas, go to deivas; worshippers of ancestors, go to the ancestors; worshippers of beings go to the world of creation; my worshippers come to me (yānti devavratā devānpitṝnyānti pitṛvratāḥ । bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā yānti madyājino’pi mām ॥ 9-25॥).
पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति ।
तदहं भक्त्युपहृतमश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः ॥ ९-२६॥
यत्करोषि यदश्नासि यज्जुहोषि ददासि यत् ।
यत्तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत्कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ॥ ९-२७॥
शुभाशुभफलैरेवं मोक्ष्यसे कर्मबन्धनैः ।
संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा विमुक्तो मामुपैष्यसि ॥ ९-२८॥
(26-28) Leaf, flower, fruit, water, those that offer me with devotion (patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyaṃ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati ।), those offered with devotion I accept of the pious souls (tadahaṃ bhaktyupahṛtamaśnāmi prayatātmanaḥ ॥ 9-26॥). Whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as sacrifice, whatever you donate (yatkaroṣi yadaśnāsi yajjuhoṣi dadāsi yat ।) all your austerities you do, consign it to me (yattapasyasi kaunteya tatkuruṣva madarpaṇam ॥ 9-27॥). Thus, you will be freed from good and bad fruits that create bonds of karma (śubhāśubhaphalairevaṃ mokṣyase karmabandhanaiḥ ।) when your soul is steadfast in seeking harmony through renunciation (saṃnyāsayogayuktātmā), you shall be liberated and come to me (vimukto māmupaiṣyasi ॥ 9-28॥).
समोऽहं सर्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्योऽस्ति न प्रियः ।
ये भजन्ति तु मां भक्त्या मयि ते तेषु चाप्यहम् ॥ ९-२९॥
अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् ।
साधुरेव स मन्तव्यः सम्यग्व्यवसितो हि सः ॥ ९-३०॥
क्षिप्रं भवति धर्मात्मा शश्वच्छान्तिं निगच्छति ।
कौन्तेय प्रतिजानीहि न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति ॥ ९-३१॥
(29-31) I treat all creation equally, I do not repel them nor are they dear to me (samo’haṃ sarvabhūteṣu na me dveṣyo’sti na priyaḥ ।) but those who worship me with devotion, they are in me and also, I am in them (ye bhajanti tu māṃ bhaktyā mayi te teṣu cāpyaham ॥ 9-29॥). Even if a wicked person worships me, thinking of no other (api cetsudurācāro bhajate māmananyabhāk ।), truly, he should accurately be regarded as saintly, for emancipated is he (sādhureva sa mantavyaḥ samyagvyavasito hi saḥ ॥ 9-30॥). Soon he becomes a righteous soul and attains eternal peace (kṣipraṃ bhavati dharmātmā śaśvacchāntiṃ nigacchati ।), know that none of my devotees is destroyed (kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati ॥ 9-31॥).
मां हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य येऽपि स्युः पापयोनयः ।
स्त्रियो वैश्यास्तथा शूद्रास्तेऽपि यान्ति परां गतिम् ॥ ९-३२॥
किं पुनर्ब्राह्मणाः पुण्या भक्ता राजर्षयस्तथा ।
अनित्यमसुखं लोकमिमं प्राप्य भजस्व माम् ॥ ९-३३॥
(32-33) Indeed, even those who may me of wretched origin who take refuge in me (māṃ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye’pi syuḥ pāpayonayaḥ ।), also women, business people and workers, they also attain supreme salvation (striyo vaiśyāstathā śūdrāste’pi yānti parāṃ gatim ॥ 9-32॥). How many more brahmins, pious devotees, royal seers also impermanent and unhappy in the world have obtained this, worship me (kiṃ punarbrāhmaṇāḥ puṇyā bhaktā rājarṣayastathā । anityamasukhaṃ lokamimaṃ prāpya bhajasva mām ॥ 9-33॥).
मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।
मामेवैष्यसि युक्त्वैवमात्मानं मत्परायणः ॥ ९-३४॥
(34) With your cognition on me, my devotee, sacrifice unto me, propitiate me alone, strive steadfastly with your soul thus devoted to me (manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṃ namaskuru । māmevaiṣyasi yuktvaivamātmānaṃ matparāyaṇaḥ ॥ 9-34॥).