Published on: December 17, 2016
Reading time: 27 minutes
School of Yoga is profoundly grateful to Saṃskṛta scholars and academics Pijus Kanti Pal (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Dolon Chanpa Mondal for their support in Saṃskṛta transliteration and quality control.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga (Yoga of awareness of the Self in any situation).
- From Chapters 1 to 6, Śrī Kṛṣṇa discourses on action (karma) and the method of transcending it.
- From Chapter 6, Śrī Kṛṣṇa changes tack and heads into the conceptual basis of Yoga, beginning with jñāna and vijñāna.
- What is jñāna? it is cognition of Brahman, the source, Truth or Transcendental Self.
- What is vijñāna? It is the conceptual understanding of materiality, cognition of īśvara or Viṣṇu – the weave of puruṣa and prakṛti. In fact, it is the awareness of the Self in everything that leads up to jñāna.
- At a local level, vijñāna includes cognition of the motility of any system or entity.
- Yoga is the union of the impermanent material Self with the state of permanent state or Brahman or Truth. One might also call Yoga as the point where there is merger of jñāna and vijñāna.
Here, it is important to understand the role of free-will (saṅkalpa) and consciousness (citta), because consciousness is the connecting medium between jñāna and vijñāna. Citta is the motility of vijñāna and when free-will (saṅkalpa) is used to subdue the functioning of citta, yoga occurs (yogaścitta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ).
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga (verse 1-3).
- Śrī Kṛṣṇa speaks about the value of surrender; how complete surrender leads to subduing of the Self (asmitā). While he recommends surrender unto him (Śrī Kṛṣṇa), this surrender could be any entity because the quality of surrender is the same in all instances.
- Śrī Kṛṣṇa divides creation into two, lower and higher order of creation.
- First, comes lower order of creation (lower prakṛti) or the material creation. This constitutes the material universe and has an eightfold divided state comprising earth (pṛthvī), water (ap), fire (agni), air (vāyu), ether (ākāśa), seat of cognition (manas – where all the sensory stimuli are collated), seat of intelligence (buddhi, where the incoming stimulus is compared with conditioning or dharma and reaction is formulated) and the feeling that I am the doer (ahaṃkāra).
- Second, there is a higher level of creation (Brahman) that creates lower the order of creation, also called prakṛti. Brahman pervades everything and provides the motive force for creation, sustenance and dissolution of all matter.
- Śrī Kṛṣṇa then declares that all creation proceeds from him and he is the motility that drives their natural state (dharma).
- Additionally, Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that he is passion and all contrary attributes that are natural to any entity. For example, hate, anger, delusion, negativity, divisiveness, prejudice etc. proceed from Śrī Kṛṣṇa also!
- Finally, Śrī Kṛṣṇa states that although he is the creator and nature of all existence, he is not the participant. Consequently, karma or experience of the doer does not affect him.
So, what is Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s position and role in the overall scheme of things? How is he linked to Brahman? Is he some transition point between Brahman and creation? Śrī Kṛṣṇa also seems to be positioning himself as the transition between jñāna and vijñāna.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga.
Concept of Creation.
Definition: A divided state is one where there are two discrete states that may or may not be linked. However, in this case, because Brahman is the underlying foundation and motility of both, the two states are inextricably linked. The two states can be separated into a higher-level state that starts from Brahman and ends with the beginning of creation (jñāna), followed by the lower-level state which encompasses creation, maintenance and dissolution of all entities (vijñāna).
How are the two states of jñāna and vijñāna linked? Jñāna is the cognition of the Self or the Brahman, vijñāna is the cognition of the identity of all material existence (māyā) that emerge downstream from Brahman. Common to both states is prajñā, which is awareness of Brahman, while consciousness (citta) is the medium that carries the cognition of motility (vijñāna) in material existence (māyā).
How are these two states different? We know that Brahman is the underlying foundation of both states, providing the motive force for creating, activating, sustaining and destroying all elements, entities and systems. So, let us first understand Brahman.
Brahman is that state of infinite, imperishable (cannot die) and immutable (cannot change) state of peace. This state can be compared to a state of null (nothing) or infinity, the “null” being a state of nothing and “infinity” being a state of expanding illusion (Viṣṇu or īśvara) that equals 1/0. The difference between null and infinity is that null has no material while infinity has material which is based on the foundation of null (illusion).
- From Brahman emerges a weave of puruṣa (Identity or experiencer) and prakṛti (creation). Brahman provides the motility for both but does not participate.
- The weave of puruṣa and prakṛti results in two possibilities. Brahman with attributes (saguṇa-brahman), where both puruṣa and prakṛti weave with each other to create materiality (māyā) and Brahman without attributes (nirguṇa–brahman), where prakṛti does not manifest and the experiencer or identity (puruṣa) exists only as pure identity but without motility (prakṛti).
- Saguṇa–brahman is also known as Viṣṇu or īśvara and cognition of Viṣṇu or īśvara is vijñāna.
- Additionally, when Brahman manifests in saguṇa state, brahman becomes materiality or illusion (māyā), forming the basis for material cognition. This is the lower order of creation and the state where karma (action) operates.
- Next, the higher order of creation is an unmanifested state called nirguṇa-brahman (Brahman that has an identity but has not been able to manifest with material attributes). Here, Brahman has emerged from its state of infinite, imperishable (cannot die) and immutable (cannot change) state of peace but it has not got into a state saguṇa–brahman where it becomes material. So, here puruṣa remains unmanifested or reverts back into the state of null or Brahman.
- However, both nirguṇa–brahman and saguṇa–brahman states are derivatives of the primary state, Brahman.
- Lastly, when saguṇa-brahman and nirguṇa–brahman finally reverse integrate back to Brahman, that is called pralaya (merger of māyā with the source or Brahman).
- Cognition of Brahman is jñāna and the experience is called nirvikalpa-samādhi (uninterrupted and unchanging state of peace).
Lower order of creation hiraṇyagarbha and Viṣṇu.
- Puruṣa and prakṛti weave as saguṇa–brahman, and the primordial outcome is called – root of creation (mūla-prakṛti), supreme soul (paramātman) or īśvara.
- From īśvara emerges hiraṇyagarbha (golden egg), brahmāṇḍa (creation of Brahman) or the universe. This happens in two ways, first as a big bang, with spontaneous creation of matter along with unit evolution, and second as quanta creation and building block of matter.
- The weave of puruṣa and prakṛti is the source of action (karma). Karma creates transactions and bonds, and each bond results in the creation of a new identity (ātman).
- Ātman (soul) is a primary unit of the weave of puruṣa and prakṛti.
- Also, ātman is the location where debt resides.
- Since prārabdha-karma exists until the debt is paid off, entities get separated once their debt is reconciled. They then create new bonds with new souls (ātman) along with reconstituted debt.
- As a result, multiple identities/ souls or ātman of varying complexities are created and dissolved continuously.
- Multiple souls (ātman) integrate to form a composite soul that has a discrete form (rūpa). Also, this discrete unit can be a sentient being (jīva) or insentient entity (jaḍa).
- Small, medium and large bonds create small, medium or large systems and entities, each with their own identity (ātman).
- As a result of creation and dissolution, a massive supra-eco-system is created where entities, small systems, subsystems and macro-systems of varying complexities exist in the supra-system.
- This macro-ecosystem which houses this continuously evolving and changing mass of entities and systems is called the universe or hiraṇyagarbha (golden egg).
- Lastly, like all systems, this supra-system or hiraṇyagarbha (golden egg) also has its own centre of super-identity (paramātman) called Viṣṇu.
- However, it can be seen that this creation, maintenance and destruction is not real. It exists, changes and morphs. This is called māyā (farce or illusion).
- Importantly, the sense of identity (ātman) of hiraṇyagarbha or the universe does not change even though it is evolving continuously. It remains as Viṣṇu and continues to be a creation of the weave of puruṣa with prakṛti, which are a manifestation of the Brahman.
- Consequently, vijñāna is the cognition of paramātman, īśvara, Viṣṇu, brahmāṇḍa, or hiraṇyagarbha of any system at a material (saguṇa) level (all the above names mean the same entity).
- Since all existence within saguṇa–brahman, īśvara and consequently hiraṇyagarbha is impermanent and everything is a manifestation of the Brahman, hiraṇyagarbha and everything within it is an illusion (māyā).
- Consequently, Viṣṇu can be termed as the repository of māyā (farce or illusion).
Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad states that first, there is nothing, like the state of death. This is the cognitive state of the Brahman.
Then, Brahman expresses itself by creating cognition and intelligence. This also means that it got an identity (puruṣa). But, we know that there are no free lunches, so how can Brahman express itself when it is in a state of nothing? Obviously, there must be with some sort of sacrifice.
But how can any sacrifice come out of nothing? One thing can be sacrificed. The state of nothing itself. Confused?
Consider this. You are standing in a queue doing nothing and a tough looking person breaks it. You were in a state of nothing, but now you see your line being broken and your sense of order (dharma) is challenged and there is turbulence within.
But, before confronting the bully, you need to confront yourself and sacrifice your fears. Otherwise, you will remain in the state of nothing. There will be turbulence but no outcome.
This sacrifice of the Self for the Self is called yajñā. The personality you project is puruṣa and your actions, which will be a manifestation of your personality (svabhāva) is prakriti. The outcome of your effort is karma, this means that whether you act in accordance with dharma, it is karma, don’t act (akarma) or act inappropriately or against dharma (vikarma), you are stuck with the consequences. This outcome is stored for repayment/ reconciliation in your soul (ātma).
Dvaita and advaita philosophies.
- The foundation of dvaita (duality) philosophy is that the individual’s identity or ātman (singular Self) is subordinate to that of īśvara (universal Identity, paramātman or Viṣṇu).
- Consequently, the best path for transcending reality is to surrender oneself to īśvara or Viṣṇu and try to merge with that identity (paramātman).
- However, since the Soul (ātman) is trapped in (hiraṇyagarbha), all reprieve would be temporary and dependent on karma generated by the person. Therefore, rebirth is inevitable. This process is explained by Śrī Kṛṣṇa in The Bhagavad-gītā chapter 3 – karma-yoga.
- In contrast, advaita (non-duality) posits that since everything is the Brahman (tat-tvam-asi) and all existence is a veil over Brahman, called māyā (illusion), including īśvara (universal Identity, paramātman or Viṣṇu).
- In fact, Śrī Kṛṣṇa himself says, that which is permanent is the Brahman and everything that is temporary or impermanent or subject to creation, death or dissolution is māyā.
- Hence, if a person were to be able to negate his or her own identity, or reduce experience (puruṣa) to zero, then prakṛti would cease to manifest, enabling the person to transcend māyā and reach nirguṇa–brahman
- Consequently, with more effort, the person would reach nirvikalpa-samādhi (changeless state) which is merger with the Brahman.
- However, this does not mean that one cannot reach Brahman by merging with Viṣṇu, through the dvaita philosophy. After all, any merger requires negation of one’s existential identity (puruṣa), so when a person surrenders completely to Viṣṇu, he or she loses personal identity. This leads to attainment of nirguṇa-brahman which is the Brahman.
Śiva, śakti and tantra.
- We have seen that the weave of puruṣa (experiencer or Identity) with prakṛti (manifestation of puruṣa) creates an Identity called ātman which is the repository of debt (ṛṇa).
- However, this continuous and complex series of combinations that creates, sustains and dissolves the Universe must have a constituent, foundational, quanta or unit element/ identity on which the whole Universe is built and exists (that point where further break down is not possible).
- What is the constituent primary element / building block of puruṣa and prakṛti? In other words, what is the quanta (micro, unit, smallest building block) that emerges from the Brahman.
- This quanta identity is śiva, which manifests as śakti.
- Śiva is the quanta (micro, unit, smallest building block) entity of puruṣa, which is the experiencer in a macro form. Consequently, this makes śiva, the quanta or micro-experiencer.
- Similarly, śakti is the quanta (micro, quanta unit, smallest building block) entity of prakṛti.
- Thus, while prakṛti is the manifestation of puruṣa, śakti is the manifestation of śiva. Puruṣa weaves with prakṛti while śiva weaves with śakti.
- Also, while the unit level weave of puruṣa and prakṛti is the Soul or Self (ātman), the unit weave of śiva with śakti is prāṇa (unit motility).
- Additionally, this weave in both cases is called tantra or weave and the yoking of one with the other in both cases is called yoga.
So, how do śiva and śakti weave to form puruṣa and prakṛti?
- In fact, it can be derived that when quanta śiva / śakti bonds with another quanta śiva / śakti, a composite or complex identity is created due to karma, which evolves to become the weave of puruṣa (experiencer) with prakṛti.
- Also, as the combinations become complex, the composite unit gets a material form (rūpa) and becomes both, the Universe and its constituent (hiraṇyagarbha).
- Thus, we can derive that śiva is the primary or quanta constituent element of material brahman (saguṇa–brahman).
- When śiva does not manifest, it does not mean that śiva has ceased to exist, It means that śiva is in an unmanifested brahman or nirguṇa–brahman
- Therefore, śiva (quanta identity) is present in all the states of Brahman and is called sadā-śiva (perpetual śiva).
- Thus, it is clear that the weave of śiva with śakti or puruṣa with prakṛti is an experiential state, it has to be cognised/ experienced.
- This awareness is called prajñā. When the awareness relates to the Self (puruṣa) in the environment, it is called vijñāna and when it is about the person’s awareness of the Self (puruṣa), it is called jñāna.
- One can also say that the awareness of a person of the weave (tantra) his or her identity (puruṣa) with his or her actions (prakṛti) is the calibre of his individuality (svatantra) and this applies to all entities, even countries.
Hydrogen and Oxygen are atoms with their own Identities. However, when they combine, they form water which has a very different identity as opposed to its constituent Hydrogen and Oxygen.
So, as an example, quanta identity or śiva of Hydrogen and quanta identity or śiva of Oxygen combine to create a composite identity of water which has its own Identity (ātman).
However, the Identity of water is different from its constituent Hydrogen or Oxygen. Consequently, since each of these, hydrogen, oxygen and water are discrete souls, each ātman (soul) carries all the debts (ṛṇa).
Also, the debt accrued by water in its karma (action) will be its own and neither of its individual constituents, Hydrogen or Oxygen will carry the karma of water as the souls (ātman) are different.
Īśvara and three embodiments (tri-mūrti) – brahma, viṣṇu and śiva and their consorts
- Puruṣa and prakṛti weave as saguṇa–brahman and form the root of creation (mūlā-prakṛti), or supreme soul (paramātman) or īśvara.
- From īśvara emerges hiraṇyagarbha (golden egg), brahmāṇḍa (creation of brahman) or the universe. This happens in two ways; as big bang, with spontaneous creation of matter along with its constituent unit evolution, as quanta creation of matter. This is the world of brahma, primarily driven by passion (rajoguṇa), for creation.
- Since creation itself can be irresponsible and passionate, the framework of creation needs to function in systemic harmony, otherwise the system will collapse. Hence, it needs an identity (viṣṇu), which brings balance to the various conflicting forces to ensure harmony within the universe (hiraṇyagarbha or brahmāṇḍa). Since viṣṇu creates harmony or balance between rajas and tamas, it is sāttvika.
- Lastly, there is śiva. Śiva is primordial or quanta Identity, predominantly governed by fear of loss of Identity, hence lethargic and delusional. So, śiva is tāmasika-guṇa. Since śiva is the quanta identity, it is the building block of all creation, which includes puruṣa.
The three embodiments (trimūrti), each have a consort (devī), these being embodiments of prakṛti. Without these tridevī‘s, the trimūrti’s are irrelevant and cannot function.
- Brahmā, as a creator has knowledge (Sarasvatī) as its consort. It’s obvious that without knowledge no creative effort will succeed.
- Lakṣmī is materiality without which Viṣṇu cannot have a framework to balance,
- Śakti is energy which drives all delusion and fear which define śiva’s identity.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga (verse 8-15).
Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains his own qualities.
- I define sweet fragrance of earth, brilliance of fire, life in all beings and austerity in ascetics. Thus, I am seed of all beings, intelligence of intelligent and splendour of the splendid.
- I am strength in the strong, without passion or attraction. In beings, I am desire which is not contrary to the state of order/ harmony and natural conditioning (dharma).
- I am creator of sattva (balanced/ harmonious), rajas (passion/ drive/ creativity) and tamas (inertia/ delusional) attitudes. In fact, they are created by me, proceed from me, exist in all including me, but I am not in them. Guṇa’s create illusion (māyā), preventing creation from knowing the truth – but taking refuge in the source overcomes this.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga (verse 16-30).
Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains the qualities of the seeker.
- Four types of people who seek my grace (Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s grace) are,
- those in distress,
- those seeking knowledge,
- those seeking wealth and
- those imbibed with wisdom.
- All those who seek my grace are special, but those anchored to (brahman) are dearest to me.
- Often impelled by desire of quick results, people seek other Gods or rites. However, if their devotion is sincere, I enable their devotion to become steady and help them reach their goals. Sometimes, devotees think that blessings have come from deities that they worship when it has actually come from me.
- Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between effort and rewards. Consequently, when a person seeks a boon, he will receive it, be it small, medium or infinite. So, seek carefully…
- However, most people are confused by māyā, so they don’t understand me and worship my manifestation. In fact, they don’t comprehend that I am unmanifest and part of the Brahman.
- Also, I know the past, present and future of all beings but opposites arising from attraction and repulsion delude their knowledge of me.
- Only those that have paid their debts and are freed from opposites, find themselves having the ability to remain steadfast in their vows to me.
- As a result, those who recognise me as original creation, deity and sacrifice, strive for deliverance from material attachments to knowledge of the Truth, and come to me in their hour of death.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga.
Now comes the inevitable question? What is the measure of success?
There is only one measure of success, which is merger with the Brahman or source/ truth/ infinite peace. This is experienced as a state of infinite peace or nothingness where the Self (ātman) experiences no change or karma (nirvikalpa), and does not react to stimulus (citta-vṛtti-nirodha).
What does Śrī Kṛṣṇa mean when he says that he is the quality that drives all creation?
- All creation (sṛṣṭi) is a combination of the five cardinal elements (pañcabhūta): earth (pṛthvī), water (ap), fire (agni), air (vāyu) and ether (ākāśa). Also, each of these cardinal elements is a combination of guṇa (attributes).
Example: Pṛthvī (earth) is predominantly tamas (inertia/ delusional/ self-centred).
- All matter is a combination of the above elements, from the lowly atom to the mighty universe. Each of these entities which come into existence has a centre of identity or Self (ātman).
- Each entity also interacts and functions in a system with other entities.
- As a natural corollary, all collection of entities has a centre of identity or Self (ātman).
Example: each housing society is defined by a boundary wall and has its own Identity. Similarly, each city, state, region, country or planet have their own centre of Identity. Also, the Sun has an identity, as has Mars, Jupiter, Saturn or Moon. Finally, the biggest entity is the Universe, its center of identity is viṣṇu.
But, Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that he is beyond even that, as well as being the essence of everything that defines materiality.
School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga.
School of Yoga posits views that may be contrary to accepted positions.
Śrī Kṛṣṇa establishes some paradigms in Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7.
- He is the essence of materiality, the motility in all creation. Also, he clearly states that he is the personality trait (bhāva) of every entity.
- However, he also states that he is not responsible for the person’s actions. It is important to understand this difference because personality trait drives action and outcome of action. So, basically Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s underwrites the existence of personality but separates himself from the operation of personality and karma.
- You are on your own! Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the motility of entities but inert. Every time you act, or use free-will, you are getting deeper into a debt trap of action (ṛṇānubandhana). So, free will is a trap. The other solution is to not act. But, that in itself is action, inaction is action! Hence, that is not a solution. The only way out is to not seek action but diffuse every situation that comes one’s way without creating subsidiary action. Consequently, one will need to address every situation with discrimination (viveka) and dispassion (vairāgya), avoiding duality of like-dislike, good-bad etc.
- Finally, Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that anyone desiring liberation should completely surrender and submit himself to Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s will. What is this state and how does it operate? What happens is that the person’s will (saṅkalpa) becomes dysfunctional and while prārabdha-karma acts, further āgami-karma ceases to get created because no debt is created. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, by being the focus of surrender acts as the enabler of this metamorphosis.
The Transliteration of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 7, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga follows.
Sanskrit words are in red italics.
मय्यासक्तमनाः पार्थ योगं युञ्जन्मदाश्रयः ।
असंशयं समग्रं मां यथा ज्ञास्यसि तच्छृणु ॥ ७-१॥
ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।
यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते ॥ ७-२॥
मनुष्याणां सहस्रेषु कश्चिद्यतति सिद्धये ।
यततामपि सिद्धानां कश्चिन्मां वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ॥ ७-३॥
Śrī Kṛṣṇa said (1-3) Anchor your cognition on me, take refuge in me, practice yoga, without doubt I will reveal everything to you (mayyāsaktamanāḥ pārtha yogaṃ yuñjanmadāśrayaḥ । asaṃśayaṃ samagraṃ māṃ yathā jñāsyasi tacchṛṇu ॥ 7-1॥). To you, I will reveal in totality this knowledge along with correct interpretation which having known nothing more not even residue remains of knowing (jñānaṃ te’haṃ savijñānamidaṃ vakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ । yajjñātvā neha bhūyo’nyajjñātavyamavaśiṣyate ॥ 7-2॥). Among thousands of men, only some strive for perfection, among those striving, anyone who becomes perfect knows my essence (manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaścidyatati siddhaye । yatatāmapi siddhānāṃ kaścinmāṃ vetti tattvataḥ ॥ 7-3॥).
भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च ।
अहङ्कार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा ॥ ७-४॥
अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् ।
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत् ॥ ७-५॥
(4-5) Earth, water, fire, air, ether seat of cognition, seat of logic, and also feeling that I am the doer form my eightfold divided state of nature (bhūmirāpo’nalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano buddhireva ca । ahaṅkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtiraṣṭadhā ॥ 7-4॥). Also, from this lower but of different nature is this knowledge of my absolute state the life material by which this the universe is maintained (apareyamitastvanyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām । jīvabhūtāṃ mahābāho yayedaṃ dhāryate jagat ॥ 7-5॥).
एतद्योनीनि भूतानि सर्वाणीत्युपधारय ।
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस्तथा ॥ ७-६॥
मत्तः परतरं नान्यत्किञ्चिदस्ति धनञ्जय ।
मयि सर्वमिदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणिगणा इव ॥ ७-७॥
(6-7) Therefore, know me to be the source of all creation I am the sole reason of creation and dissolution (etadyonīni bhūtāni sarvāṇītyupadhāraya । ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayastathā ॥ 7-6॥). In fact, other than me no other is higher, all this are strung on me like a string of pearls (mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyatkiñcidasti dhanañjaya । mayi sarvamidaṃ protaṃ sūtre maṇigaṇā iva ॥ 7-7॥).
रसोऽहमप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशिसूर्ययोः ।
प्रणवः सर्ववेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु ॥ ७-८॥
पुण्यो गन्धः पृथिव्यां च तेजश्चास्मि विभावसौ ।
जीवनं सर्वभूतेषु तपश्चास्मि तपस्विषु ॥ ७-९॥
(8-9) First, I am the essence of water in water I am the illumination of the Moon and Sun, the OM in Vedas, sound in ether, manliness in men (raso’hamapsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśisūryayoḥ । praṇavaḥ sarvavedeṣu śabdaḥ khe pauruṣaṃ nṛṣu ॥ 7-8॥). Fragrance of pure earth and splendour in fire am I, I am life in all beings and austerity in ascetics (puṇyo gandhaḥ pṛthivyāṃ ca tejaścāsmi vibhāvasau । jīvanaṃ sarvabhūteṣu tapaścāsmi tapasviṣu ॥ 7-9॥).
बीजं मां सर्वभूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सनातनम् ।
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ॥ ७-१०॥
बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्जितम् ।
धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ ॥ ७-११॥
ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये ।
मत्त एवेति तान्विद्धि न त्वहं तेषु ते मयि ॥ ७-१२॥
(10-12) I am the seed of all creation know that I am eternal, I am the intelligence of the intelligent, the splendour of the splendid am I (bījaṃ māṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ viddhi pārtha sanātanam । buddhirbuddhimatāmasmi tejastejasvināmaham ॥ 7-10॥). I am strength of the strong (balaṃ balavatāṃ cāhaṃ), who is devoid of passion or desire (kāmarāgavivarjitam ।). I am passion contrary to harmony in creation (dharmāviruddho bhūteṣu kāmo’smi bharatarṣabha ॥ 7-11॥). Truly, whatever harmonious traits (ye caiva sāttvikā bhāvā) and whatever passionate or delusion (rājasāstāmasāśca ye ।), truly, know that they proceed from me but are not in me (matta eveti tānviddhi na tvahaṃ teṣu te mayi ॥ 7-12॥).
त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिः सर्वमिदं जगत् ।
मोहितं नाभिजानाति मामेभ्यः परमव्ययम् ॥ ७-१३॥
दैवी ह्येषा गुणमयी मम माया दुरत्यया ।
मामेव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायामेतां तरन्ति ते ॥ ७-१४॥
न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः ।
माययापहृतज्ञाना आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः ॥ ७-१५॥
(13-15) All in this world are deluded by the three attributes that drive perceptual traits and by these do not cognise my absolute supreme imperishable nature (tribhirguṇamayairbhāvairebhiḥ sarvamidaṃ jagat । mohitaṃ nābhijānāti māmebhyaḥ paramavyayam ॥ 7-13॥). Verily, my divinity is unfathomable due to this illusion created by attributes (daivī hyeṣā guṇamayī mama māyā duratyayā ।). Only they who take refuge in me can cross this illusion (māmeva ye prapadyante māyāmetāṃ taranti te ॥ 7-14॥). Wicked people, delusional and abject people seek illusion that is deprived of knowledge and are demonical in nature and do not attain me (na māṃ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ । māyayāpahṛtajñānā āsuraṃ bhāvamāśritāḥ ॥ 7-15॥).
चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन ।
आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ ॥ ७-१६॥
तेषां ज्ञानी नित्ययुक्त एकभक्तिर्विशिष्यते ।
प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः ॥ ७-१७॥
उदाराः सर्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्वात्मैव मे मतम् ।
आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा मामेवानुत्तमां गतिम् ॥ ७-१८॥
बहूनां जन्मनामन्ते ज्ञानवान्मां प्रपद्यते ।
वासुदेवः सर्वमिति स महात्मा सुदुर्लभः ॥ ७-१९॥
(16-19) Four classes of virtuous people worship me (caturvidhā bhajante māṃ janāḥ sukṛtino’rjuna ।). Importantly, the distressed, the seeker of wisdom, seeker of wealth and the wise (ārto jijñāsurarthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣabha ॥ 7-16॥). Of them, the wise always intent with single minded devotion excels (teṣāṃ jñānī nityayukta ekabhaktirviśiṣyate ।). Truly, exceeding among the wise is he that loves me and I love in return (priyo hi jñānino’tyarthamahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ ॥ 7-17॥). Exemplary all these surely are but the true wise soul, in my opinion (udārāḥ sarva evaite jñānī tvātmaiva me matam ।), is truly he that steadfast soul who is wholly intent upon me as the highest goal (āsthitaḥ sa hi yuktātmā māmevānuttamāṃ gatim ॥ 7-18॥). Of the many births and deaths, the wise reach me (bahūnāṃ janmanāmante jñānavānmāṃ prapadyate ।). Thus, Vaasudeva, among all, such a great soul is difficult to find (vāsudevaḥ sarvamiti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ ॥ 7-19॥).
कामैस्तैस्तैर्हृतज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्तेऽन्यदेवताः ।
तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया ॥ ७-२०॥
यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्चितुमिच्छति ।
तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्धां तामेव विदधाम्यहम् ॥ ७-२१॥
स तया श्रद्धया युक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते ।
लभते च ततः कामान्मयैव विहितान्हि तान् ॥ ७-२२॥
अन्तवत्तु फलं तेषां तद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम् ।
देवान्देवयजो यान्ति मद्भक्ता यान्ति मामपि ॥ ७-२३॥
(20-23) By desires, by this or that, due to lack of knowledge who become worshippers of other Gods (kāmaistaistairhṛtajñānāḥ prapadyante’nyadevatāḥ ।), having followed this or that set of rules or depending on their own prakṛti (taṃ taṃ niyamamāsthāya prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā ॥ 7-20॥). Who, who, which, which manifestation the devotee worships with unflinching dedication, those desires that come from devotion I surely grant (yo yo yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitumicchati । tasya tasyācalāṃ śraddhāṃ tāmeva vidadhāmyaham ॥ 7-21॥). He who worships with absorbed dedication obtains those wishes, for those genuine desires and such others are actually bestowed by me (sa tayā śraddhayā yuktastasyārādhanamīhate । labhate ca tataḥ kāmānmayaiva vihitānhi tān ॥ 7-22॥). Truly, to them that are of low intelligence, fruits are limited (antavattu phalaṃ teṣāṃ tadbhavatyalpamedhasām ।). To the deities go worshippers of deities. my devotees go to me only (devāndevayajo yānti madbhaktā yānti māmapi ॥ 7-23॥).
अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धयः ।
परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम् ॥ ७-२४॥
नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः ।
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको मामजमव्ययम् ॥ ७-२५॥
वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्तमानानि चार्जुन ।
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन ॥ ७-२६॥
(24-26) Those of immature intellect cognise me who is unmanifest as acquiring manifestation of highest not intuiting me as immutable unsurpassed (avyaktaṃ vyaktimāpannaṃ manyante māmabuddhayaḥ । paraṃ bhāvamajānanto mamāvyayamanuttamam ॥ 7-24॥). I am not illuminated, I am universal yoga concealed in māyā (nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yogamāyāsamāvṛtaḥ ।), the deluded of this world do not know that I am unborn imperishable (mūḍho’yaṃ nābhijānāti loko māmajamavyayam ॥ 7-25॥). I know that which has occurred long ago, that which is present and the future, and some living people do not really know me (vedāhaṃ samatītāni vartamānāni cārjuna । bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni māṃ tu veda na kaścana ॥ 7-26॥).
इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत ।
सर्वभूतानि सम्मोहं सर्गे यान्ति परन्तप ॥ ७-२७॥
येषां त्वन्तगतं पापं जनानां पुण्यकर्मणाम् ।
ते द्वन्द्वमोहनिर्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढव्रताः ॥ ७-२८॥
जरामरणमोक्षाय मामाश्रित्य यतन्ति ये ।
ते ब्रह्म तद्विदुः कृत्स्नमध्यात्मं कर्म चाखिलम् ॥ ७-२९॥
साधिभूताधिदैवं मां साधियज्ञं च ये विदुः ।
प्रयाणकालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर्युक्तचेतसः ॥ ७-३०॥
(27-30) Rising from desire aversion deluded by duality (icchādveṣasamutthena dvandvamohena bhārata ।), from birth, all beings are subject to delusion (sarvabhūtāni sammohaṃ sarge yānti parantapa ॥ 7-27॥). At the end, men of stained birth but virtuous action they who are free from delusion of opposites worship me with firm vows (yeṣāṃ tvantagataṃ pāpaṃ janānāṃ puṇyakarmaṇām । te dvandvamohanirmuktā bhajante māṃ dṛḍhavratāḥ ॥ 7-28॥). For liberation from old age and death, who take refuge in me and make an effort, they know that the Brahman is the complete transcendental Self and repository of action (jarāmaraṇamokṣāya māmāśritya yatanti ye । te brahma tadviduḥ kṛtsnamadhyātmaṃ karma cākhilam ॥ 7-29॥). Who have steadfast consciousness on me know me to be primordial creation, primordial deity and primordial sacrifice even at the hour of death (sādhibhūtādhidaivaṃ māṃ sādhiyajñaṃ ca ye viduḥ । prayāṇakāle’pi ca māṃ te viduryuktacetasaḥ ॥ 7-30॥).