Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā – chapter 18 (mokṣa-sannyāsa-yoga)

Post By: Published on: December 12, 2016 Reading time: 35 minutes


School of Yoga is profoundly grateful to Saṃskṛta scholars and academics Pijus Kanti Pal (pal.pijuskanti@gmail.com) and Dolon Chanpa Mondal for their support in Saṃskṛta transliteration and quality control.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18mokṣa-sannyāsa-yoga (yoga of liberation by renunciation).


Much of the last chapter is a recap of chapters 1-17. Some of the important aspects that are covered are,

  • Difference between sannyāsa and tyāga.
  • Delineation of yajña – sacrifice, dāna – donate without expectation of return and tapas, self-restraint.
  • Description of attributes (guṇa) – tamas (attitude of indolence), rajas (attitude of passion) and sattva – (attitude of balance or harmony).
  • Constitution of action (saṃgraha).
  • How attributes affect people in action and contribution in society (varna). Importance of understanding that varna does not affect personal development.
  • Recap of natural state (dharma) and its impact on excellence in action (karma).
  • His own (Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s) ability to affect the outcome of any effort in Yoga.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18.


Arjuna said: I wish to know the truth about sannyāsa and tyāga (renunciation).

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said,

  • Sannyāsa is renunciation of action motivated by desire (kāma).
  • Abandonment of fruits of action is called tyāga.
  • Difference between sannyāsa and tyāgasannyāsa is renunciation of desire (kāma) for an outcome in an act. For example – a soldier charging an enemy position does not know whether he will succeed. However, tyāga is the renunciation of all fruits from the action. The soldier charging an enemy position can have 3 possible outcomes; he may die, in which case all further discussion ends; he may succeed in overcoming the enemy or he may be defeated and captured. Tyāga is acceptance of both, success and defeat with same attitude, one of indifference. (Ch 18 verse 12)
  • One must treat desire (kāma) like an affliction (doṣa).
  • Relinquish all action except,
    • Yajña – sacrifice,
    • Dāna – donate without expectation of return,
    • Tapas – self-restraint,
  • Even when performing yajña, dāna and tapas, do not expect any return.
  • Recognise that behaviour is driven by attributes (guṇa),
    • Tamas (attitude of indolence) – when action is abandoned due to ignorance.
    • Rajas (attitude of passion) – when action is abandoned because of fear.
    • Sattva – (attitude of balance) – when action is performed because it must be done, not for fruits.
  • It is impossible to renounce action entirely. However, it is possible to renounce fruits of one’s action.
  • But any person can free himself from the effects of karma by discarding the attitude of being the doer (ahaṅkāra).

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18, verse 1-18.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains mokṣa-sannyāsa-yoga.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s explanation on karma in this chapter gives the best understanding on the subject. This chapter is almost completely devoted to action in its various forms. Therefore, one could conclude that Śrī Kṛṣṇa in a subtle manner, indicates that everything related to existence is action (karma).

  • In this chapter, Śrī Kṛṣṇa explains the gross components of any act. There are five,
    • adhiṣṭhāna – place or body – this is any place where action is being performed, within or outside the body.
    • kartṛ – the doer. Since multiple entities may be impacted, this can include the person, team members and others as well. Also, when the team is integrated, it is considered a single unit.
    • kāraṇa – causation or reason – reason for the action (mission, strategy and tactics).
    • pāṭhaka-ceṣṭā – discrete aspect – all action can be split into discrete stages, systems or processes.
    • daiva – presiding deity – all action has a presiding deity that personifies its identity (like a brand).
  • Subtle components of action consist of three aspects (saṃgraha),
    • karmacodanā – motivators of action comprising of three sub-elements,
      • jñāna – wisdom – knowledge of the subject, including integration of resources and processes.
      • jñeya – the unknown aspects of the action such as various assumptions and forecast.
      • parijñeyatā – data, evidence on which decisions are based.
    • Action (karma) itself – here it is important to realise that action should be performed as a sacrifice (yajña), the person should perform the sacrifice without expectation and accept any outcome without duality (like-dislike, good-bad, right-wrong etc.).
    • kartṛ – doer and team members.
  • What is the difference between gross (sthūla) and subtle (sūkṣma) aspects of action or karma? We can compare these two aspects to the hardware (gross) and software (subtle) of any action! The gross aspect covers all visible components of action, while the subtle aspect covers logic and the drivers (kāraṇa) of action as well as Identity (Śiva). The subtle elements drive both, cognition of the system (vijñāna) and cognition of the Self (jñāna).
  • Another important aspect which Śrī Kṛṣṇa highlights is the difference between prārabdha-karma (action that is occurring on account of previous debt or destiny) and free-will (svatantra). The question which is never clearly answered is to what extent do we control our own actions? Some of the points made by Śrī Kṛṣṇa are,
    • No one can stop karma from occurring, prakṛti (nature’s own instinct) will force action. (Ch 18 verse 59)
    • Next, karma or action manifests as natural instincts (svabhāva) but these are driven by conditioning (dharma).
    • This means that events occur due to repayment of debt (prārabdha-karma) and response to stimulus occurs in conformance with one’s conditioning (sva-dharma).
    • Dharma occurs at various levels. For example, humans eat food, but unlike other creatures’ humans also eat when they are not hungry, this is conditioning (svadharma). Next, humans eat a variety of foods and in various ways, called cuisines. Animals eat without variation, a cow will eat grass and some vegetation, a lion will eat a cow. Humans wear clothing and follow cultures which they protect very assiduously. This type of existence that exists on earth is unique to Earth because the natural conditioning (dharma) of the earth allows it.
    • The important aspect of all the above examples is that no entity has a choice of the positions they occupy – not the human, animal, Earth, Solar system, nor the fire, snow or rain, all manifest according to their natural states with no control.
    • Then, how does Śrī Kṛṣṇa say, renounce desire and fruit of your action? All this indicates free will! The root and span of control can be found in the citta or consciousness. From first principles,
      • Brahman is an infinite, unchanging, immutable sea of peace.
      • From brahman emerges puruṣa and prakṛti.
      • From the weave of puruṣa and prakṛti comes karma (action).
      • The common thread in this process is the consciousness (citta). Citta plays the role of a messenger, carrying the projection of puruṣa through prakṛti to the object, bringing feedback. The mechanical components of the transaction are the senses (indriya), cognition (manas) where the intellect (buddhi) compares data with conditioning (dharma) before initiation of reaction and the action (karma) itself.
      • Citta is an outward projection of puruṣa through prakṛti. When it is not projecting, it is in turmoil because the puruṣa (experiencer) is constantly anxious about losing its Identity.
      • The citta can be quietened when one becomes aware of its movement as an agency external to the Self (ātman). This awareness is called prajñā.
      • When awareness (prajñā) quietens consciousness (citta), reactions become independent of self-worth (asmitā) and free-will or ability to control response increases. 
      • When prajñā is combined with sacrifice (yajña), which requires acting for a selfless purpose, (dāna) donating without expectation of return and self-restraint (tapas) which is possible only if the consciousness (citta) has been quietened, self-will is exerted to ensure that the Self is removed from the action.
      • This is “Om-tat-sat”. Brahmān exists in any sacrifice (yajña) that adds value (sat), and this requires dedication, sincerity and focus on contribution (śraddhā).
      • To achieve this, one must follow the law of ṛta (excellence),  which has been explained in Ch 16.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18.


  • First, to achieve karma-sannyāsa, stop applying logic to everything. When acting, sacrifice to add value (Om-tat-sat).
  • Next, ensure that logic is consistently discriminating between permanent-impermanent and dualities such as rāga-dveṣa (like-dislike). This attitude is called vivekā.
  • To reach the above state, live in solitude eat sparingly and control speech, body and cognitive apparatus through meditation.
  • Also, practice dispassion (vairāgya) and avoid arrogance, passion, anger and greed. Abandon feelings of being a doer (ahaṅkāra).
  • Finally, when the yogī has no attachments and has reached a state of sublime peace, that person becomes fit to merge with the Brahman.
  • On merging with the Brahman, this serene soul neither grieves nor has expectations.
  • Also, the person treats all alike and sees Brahman is all creation (samaḥ-sarveṣu-bhūteṣu). As a result, the yogī realises that “I” and “Truth” are the same and attains indestructible, everlasting bliss.
  • So, consciously surrender all actions unto the guru (in this case, Śrī Kṛṣṇa) with complete devotion and follow the Yoga of discrimination. Then, when acting, fix your consciousness on the guru to overcome all obstacles, by his grace.
  • However, if anyone retains the attitude of being the doer (ahaṅkāra), then they will lose everything.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18, verse 20-40.

Mokṣa-sannyāsa follows karma-sannyāsa.

  • No one can escape the power of guṇas (attributes).
  • Jñāna, karma and kartṛ can be further sub-classified according to the three guṇas (guṇabhedataḥ). Verses 20 to 40 cover this sub-classification.
  • Duties of a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya or śūdra can be attributed to their guṇa. 
  • However, no matter what varṇa one is, that person can realise the Self by performing work with an attitude that is in congruence with his personality trait and being consciously aware of the Brahman.
  • Importantly, one should act in accordance with one’s own conditioning or dharma, rather than try to satisfy someone else’s. So, one must not convert to another dharma, nor ask anyone to convert from his or her dharma.

Conclusion – There is a clear understanding that jāti (community) is different from varṇa (classification) and neither is an impediment to the yogī who seeks the Truth.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18.

Dharma, guṇa and human stratification.

  • Karma acts continuously. In fact, action, inaction and inappropriate action are all karma.
  • Also, even if a person were to exercise free will to avoid action (karma), prakṛti (creation) will force the person to act through his or her svabhāva which are driven by the guṇas, to ensure an outcome.
  • All activities look daunting at the start, like smoke envelopes fire. Let go your fear, control yourself, abandon duality such as like-dislike, stop judging and take one step at a time (verse 48).
  • Guṇa comes out of prakṛti and drives conditioning (dharma).
  • Everyone has a competence that aligns with one’s own natural state (dharma). Dharma drives behaviour (svabhāva). So, it is always better for one to act in congruence with one’s own competence in a bad situation that try to function on borrowed competence. The outcome will never be satisfactory. (verse 47).
  • The mix of guṇas determines the personality and behaviour (svabhāva) of individuals and consequently, duties that they are expected to perform in society. There are 4 categories (varṇa) of people – brāhmaṇa (one who has cognised the state of Brahman, kṣatriya (warrior and leader in any situation requiring honour and virility), vaiśya (trader, businessman, farmer or arbitrator) and śūdra (workman).
  • An examination of the definition will confirm that these structures are defined by capability, so generally people who act according to their dharma would acquire specific competencies and become SME’s (Subject Matter Experts).
  • Since varṇa comes from dharma which is driven by guṇa, one can conclude that everyone’s behaviour (svabhāva) is driven by guṇa.
  • Also, anyone acquiring a particular specialisation would require an ecosystem as well as conditioning (dharma) and oftentimes, this comes from DNA and upbringing during childhood, which makes family and community living important. 
  • Consequently, specific communities end up specialising in particular tasks. These are called jāti (community). It is important to note that jāti is not caste but community, because caste has a hierarchy, which jāti does not have. 
  • Finally, anyone from any community can reach Brahman by focussed application in performance of duties. For example: Shri Sant Gora Kumbhar (1236 to 1317 A.D) (link: https://www.hindujagruti.org/hinduism-for-kids/335.html) was a potter by profession who merged with the Brahman (verse 49).
  • So, no matter what activity a person may perform, everyone should be respected for their competence and contribution and not personality or position (samaḥ-sarveṣu-bhūteṣu) (verse 45-46).

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18.

Dharma, mokṣa-sannyāsa and surrender to Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Renounce all conditioning (dharma) and surrender unto me. Then, I shall liberate you from all sins. This verse is critical in understanding the process of Yoga. (verse 65-66).

  • All yoga is about transcending the material Self and merging with Brahman.
  • The material Self is māyā and created and operationalised by puruṣa and prakṛti that drive
  • Karma has a circular relationship with dharma (natural state), it creates dharma and in turn, gets governed by rules of sanātana-dharma.

Hence, to transcend the Self, one would need to transcend dharma. What are the types of dharma that a person needs to transcend?

  • Sva-dharma (personal conditioning) – here a person will need to overcome all inhibitions and influences of DNA, education, upbringing, conditioning arising from employment, life experiences etc., truly a formidable challenge!
  • Viśeṣa-dharma (specific dharma) or conditioning of society,
  • Sāmānya-dharma (generic dharma of a genus) or instincts of being human and,
  • Sanātana-dharma (universal dharma) or state, such a dharma of creation.

Obviously, transcending sva-dharma should allow a person to overcome all existence (māyā) because all macrocosm dharma is embedded in the microcosm (sva-dharma).

How does one transcend dharma? Śrī Kṛṣṇa answers this in the opening verses, by sannyāsa which is renunciation of action motivated by desire (kāma) or abandonment of fruits of action (tyāga). At an activity level, there are three main actions. These are yajña – sacrifice, dāna – donate without expectation of return and tapas – self-restraint. Dāna adds advantage to internal development, but without sacrifice (yajña), dāna cannot be performed. Tapas is self-control and integral to development, but tapas requires sacrifice (yajña). Also, sannyāsa and tyāga, both require sacrifice. Hence, yajña is the most important of all, without which transcending māyā and merger with Brahman is not possible.

All sacrifice (yajña) creates debt (ṛṇa) and we take many for granted. Some examples,
  • Parents sacrifice for us; we incur two debts to them – debt of birth and debt of upbringing. Debt of birth, we can repay by ensuring a decent funeral and appropriate remembrance ritual. Next, to reconcile debt of upbringing, we can repay them by looking after them when they are old and infirm in a manner that ensures grace and dignity.
  • We take our teachers for granted. We think that paying fees is adequate repayment of debt, an incorrect assumption. Also, we forget that we learn from many people whom we never even acknowledge. Education without knowledge has no value because only knowledge prepares us for life, hence repayment to teachers has to extend beyond school and monetary elements.
  • The earth sacrifices everything so that we may live well, but we take the Earth for granted, thereby incurring a debt. We pollute the five cardinal elements (panchabhūtas = earth (prithvi), water p), fire (agni), air (vāyu), space (ākāṣa)) unthinkingly. This debt has to be repaid.

While there is no doubt that much of karma is out of personal control, repayment cannot be denied and this should be done to the extent free will permits. That, in itself is sacrifice (yajña).

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18, verse 63-78.

Conclusion of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said – Thus, I have declared to you the profound wisdom. Hereafter, reflect and decide what you wish to do. Also, you are beloved to me and steadfast of heart. So, fix your cognition on the Brahman or on Me. Them, be devoted to me, sacrifice to me, prostate to me, you will then merge with me. This is my pledge to you.

Renounce all conditioning (dharma) and surrender unto me. Then, I shall liberate you from all sins.

This information should not be shared with one who is not disciplined or one who does not perform service. But if you teach this to the deserving, you will surely reach the Brahman and such a person will understand the meaning of sacrifice of his identity. Also, one who learns with an open mind shall also attain liberation. So Arjuna, has your delusion been destroyed?

Arjuna said – my delusion has been destroyed. Also, I have regained my awareness through your māyā. Consequently, I am firm and free from doubt and will do as you say.

Sanjaya said: I heard the wonderful dialogue between Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa, causing my hair to stand on end. Also, I have heard, through the grace of Vyasa, the secret of the supreme yoga espoused by the Lord of Yoga himself. Indeed, I rejoice again and again at the dialogue. Consequently, when I recall the wondrous form of Hari, I continue to remain astonished and rejoice again and again. Now, I am convinced that where there is Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa, there will be victory, prosperity, wealth and correct policy.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18.

Some contradictions to accepted positions.

From verses 64 onwards, Śrī Kṛṣṇa advises Arjuna to surrender to him (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) for liberation.

Herein lies the problem, of existence and availability of free will, whether a person will be able to surrender out of personal volition and whether there will be any results. Will conditioning (dharma) or prārabdha-karma allow such a surrender? If prakṛti forces action, it stands to reason that all situation, action and reaction is pre-ordained, so surrender may not be in the individual’s control.

Next comes the question as to whether a person should surrender to Śrī Kṛṣṇa – the person, or Śrī Kṛṣṇa – the primordial sacrifice (ādi-yajña).

  • If surrender is to Śrī Kṛṣṇa the person, then obviously one should be able to surrender to any favourite deity (iṣṭa-devatā) and results should be the same (bhakti-yoga).
  • However, if the surrender is to Śrī Kṛṣṇa as primordial sacrifice, then the surrender becomes process driven, one of systematic destruction of personal sense of Identity (jñāna-yoga, rāja-yoga, haṭha-yoga etc). 

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18.

Lessons learned in Chapter 18.

  • Sannyāsa is expectation management, it is renunciation of action motivated by desire. This means – perform action because you need to, not because you want to.
  • Tyāga is renunciation of fruits of action. This means letting go the fruits once the results come in, whether good or bad. Being content with the result and using the outcome to move forward to the next goal post. It is the attachment to an expected outcome that brings pain.
  • When we perform action as a sacrifice (yajña), charity (dāna) or austerity/ self-denial (tapas), then selfishness reduces and selflessness increases, this ensures that we are not dependent on others for our self-worth (asmitā). this increases our individuality (svatantra) as well as thought that action occurs because of our own effort (ahaṅkāra).
  • This increases discrimination between value/ non-value (viveka) and dispassion (vairāgya).
  • Segregation of people according to their attributes (guṇa) is natural and occurs everywhere because each person has a natural state (sva-dharma) which is a result of prārabdha-karma. This endows people with different attributes (guṇa) and each adds different values to society and each other.
  • However, it is essential that all people and creation are treated in the same manner, Brahman does not discriminate (samaḥ-sarveṣu-bhūteṣu) .
  • The only requirement to reach Brahman is dedication (śraddhā).

The transliteration and translation of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 18 follows.

The Sanskrit diacritic words are in red italics.

अर्जुन उवाच –

सन्न्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम् ।

त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिषूदन ॥ १८-१॥

Arjuna said (1) I wish to know the truth about renunciation and abandonment (sannyāsasya mahābāho tattvamicchāmi veditum । tyāgasya ca hṛṣīkeśa pṛthakkeśiniṣūdana ॥ 18-1॥).

श्रीभगवानुवाच –

काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं सन्न्यासं कवयो विदुः ।

सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः ॥ १८-२॥

त्याज्यं दोषवदित्येके कर्म प्राहुर्मनीषिणः ।

यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यमिति चापरे ॥ १८-३॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said (2-3) Sages understand sannyāsa as renunciation of actions motivated by desire (kāma). Similarly, abandonment of fruits of all activity is declared abandonment (tyāga) by the wise (kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ sannyāsaṃ kavayo viduḥ । sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṃ prāhustyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇāḥ ॥ 18-2॥). Abandon some types of actions as noxious but sacrifice (yajna), gifting without expectation (dāna) and self-restraint (tapas) should not be relinquished (tyājyaṃ doṣavadityeke karma prāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ । yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyamiti cāpare ॥ 18-3॥). 

निश्चयं श‍ृणु मे तत्र त्यागे भरतसत्तम ।

त्यागो हि पुरुषव्याघ्र त्रिविधः सम्प्रकीर्तितः ॥ १८-४॥

यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यं कार्यमेव तत् ।

यज्ञो दानं तपश्चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम् ॥ १८-५॥

एतान्यपि तु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलानि च ।

कर्तव्यानीति मे पार्थ निश्चितं मतमुत्तमम् ॥ १८-६॥

(4-6) With certainty, it has been declared that there are 3 types of abandonment (niścayaṃ śa‍ṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama । tyāgo hi puruṣavyāghra trividhaḥ samprakīrtitaḥ ॥ 18-4॥).  Sacrifice, donation and austerity should not be abandoned when performing action. Indeed, yajnya, dana and tapas are purification acts of the wise (yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyaṃ kāryameva tat । yajño dānaṃ tapaścaiva pāvanāni manīṣiṇām ॥ 18-5॥). Even these, when these actions are performed, it is my best belief that one should abandon the fruits of such actions also (etānyapi tu karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalāni ca । kartavyānīti me pārtha niścitaṃ matamuttamam ॥ 18-6॥).

नियतस्य तु सन्न्यासः कर्मणो नोपपद्यते ।

मोहात्तस्य परित्यागस्तामसः परिकीर्तितः ॥ १८-७॥

दुःखमित्येव यत्कर्म कायक्लेशभयात्त्यजेत् ।

स कृत्वा राजसं त्यागं नैव त्यागफलं लभेत् ॥ १८-८॥

कार्यमित्येव यत्कर्म नियतं क्रियतेऽर्जुन ।

सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलं चैव स त्यागः सात्त्विको मतः ॥ १८-९॥

न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते ।

त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः ॥ १८-१०॥

(7-10) Importantly, abandoning obligatory duty is not proper. Abandonment arises out of ignorance, and is tāmasika (niyatasya tu sannyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate । mohāttasya parityāgastāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ ॥ 18-7॥). When action is abandoned on account of fear of bodily harm or pain, it is rājasika and when a person abandons it, he does not get the fruits of tyāga (duḥkhamityeva yatkarma kāyakleśabhayāttyajet । sa kṛtvā rājasaṃ tyāgaṃ naiva tyāgaphalaṃ labhet ॥ 18-8॥). Thus, even when obligatory work is performed after abandoning the fruits of such action, such abandonment is known as sāttvika (kāryamityeva yatkarma niyataṃ kriyate’rjuna । saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ ॥ 18-9॥). Such a person does not loathe disagreeable action, nor gets attached to that which is agreeable duty. Also, a person who is imbibed in sattva is self-contained, wise, with doubts torn asunder (na dveṣṭyakuśalaṃ karma kuśale nānuṣajjate । tyāgī sattvasamāviṣṭo medhāvī chinnasaṃśayaḥ ॥ 18-10॥). 

न हि देहभृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्माण्यशेषतः ।

यस्तु कर्मफलत्यागी स त्यागीत्यभिधीयते ॥ १८-११॥

अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम् ।

भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु सन्न्यासिनां क्वचित् ॥ १८-१२॥

(11-12) Without a doubt, it is impossible to renounce action. But he who renounces the fruits of one’s action, can be regarded as one who has renounced action (na hi dehabhṛtā śakyaṃ tyaktuṃ karmāṇyaśeṣataḥ । yastu karmaphalatyāgī sa tyāgītyabhidhīyate ॥ 18-11॥). Disagreeable, agreeable, mixed, these threefold outcomes of karma accrue when not abandoned, on death, but not when renounced (aniṣṭamiṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam । bhavatyatyāgināṃ pretya na tu sannyāsināṃ kvacit ॥ 18-12॥).

पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे ।

साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् ॥ १८-१३॥

(13)  Disagreeable, agreeable, mixed, these threefold outcomes of karma accrue when not abandoned, on death, but not when renounced (pañcaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me । sāṅkhye kṛtānte proktāni siddhaye sarvakarmaṇām ॥ 18-13॥).

अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम् ।

विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम् ॥ १८-१४॥

शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः ।

न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः ॥ १८-१५॥

(14-15) Additionally, learn the 5 causation components of all actions which are declared as vital in philosophy (adhiṣṭhānaṃ tathā kartā karaṇaṃ ca pṛthagvidham । vividhāśca pṛthakceṣṭā daivaṃ caivātra pañcamam ॥ 18-14॥), adhishtānaṃ (place/ body or kṣetra), kartṛ (doer), karanam (causation / operation), prathagvidham (various points of view), and deivam (deity). Whenever man in involved in dissolution of righteous or contrary karma involving body, cognition and verbal skills, these 5 components will be used (śarīravāṅmanobhiryatkarma prārabhate naraḥ । nyāyyaṃ vā viparītaṃ vā pañcaite tasya hetavaḥ ॥ 18-15॥).

तत्रैवं सति कर्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः ।

पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः ॥ १८-१६॥

यस्य नाहङ्कृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते ।

हत्वाऽपि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते ॥ १८-१७॥

(16-17) Thus, there the person sees the Self as the doer alone, truly he who does not see this owing to untrained intellect is ignorant (tatraivaṃ sati kartāramātmānaṃ kevalaṃ tu yaḥ । paśyatyakṛtabuddhitvānna sa paśyati durmatiḥ ॥ 18-16॥). He who is free from the intellectual (buddhihi) sentiment (bhāva) of being the doer (ahamkrta) is not bound (nibhayate) by his action, even if he slays other people (hanti), (yasya nāhaṅkṛto bhāvo buddhiryasya na lipyate । hatvā’pi sa imā~llokānna hanti na nibadhyate ॥ 18-17॥).

ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना ।

करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसङ्ग्रहः ॥ १८-१८॥

ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः ।

प्रोच्यते गुणसङ्ख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि ॥ १८-१९॥

jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ parijñātā trividhā karmacodanā । karaṇaṃ karma karteti trividhaḥ karmasaṅgrahaḥ ॥ 18-18

(18-19) Wisdom (jñānam), cognition of wisdom (jñeyam) and knower of wisdom (parijñātā) are three-fold motivators for normal action (karmacodanā) (jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ parijñātā trividhā karmacodanā ।). Next, the organ, instrument or equipment (karaṇaṃ), karma (act) and kartṛ (doer or performer) form the threefold constituents (saṅgrahaḥ) of action (karaṇaṃ karma karteti trividhaḥ karmasaṅgrahaḥ ॥ 18-18॥). Wisdom (jñānaṃ), action (karma) and doer (kartā) are split according to the mix of attributes (guṇabhedataḥ guṇa = attribute + bhedataḥ = split into) are describes in the philosophy of attributes (guṇasaṅkhyāne – guṇa = attributes + śaṅkhā = philosophical enumeration), hear those also (jñānaṃ karma ca kartā ca tridhaiva guṇabhedataḥ । procyate guṇasaṅkhyāne yathāvacchṛṇu tānyapi ॥ 18-19॥).

सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते ।

अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम् ॥ १८-२०॥

पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान् ।

वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम् ॥ १८-२१॥

यत्तु कृत्स्नवदेकस्मिन्कार्ये सक्तमहैतुकम् ।

अतत्त्वार्थवदल्पं च तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १८-२२॥

(20-22) First, when one sees the indestructible one-ness (Brahman) in all creation, not separated from each other, that wisdom is known is sattvikam (sarvabhūteṣu yenaikaṃ bhāvamavyayamīkṣate । avibhaktaṃ vibhakteṣu tajjñānaṃ viddhi sāttvikam ॥ 18-20॥). Next, when one perceives distinct differences or variances in all creation, such wisdom is rajas (pṛthaktvena tu yajjñānaṃ nānābhāvānpṛthagvidhān । vetti sarveṣu bhūteṣu tajjñānaṃ viddhi rājasam ॥ 18-21॥). When one extrapolates a single event into a phenomenon (krtsnavat), is attached to anything without reason (ahaitukam), does not look for evidence of reality (athathvarthvath) or is trivial/ fickle (alpam), that is declared to be tāmasika (yattu kṛtsnavadekasminkārye saktamahaitukam । atattvārthavadalpaṃ ca tattāmasamudāhṛtam ॥ 18-22॥).

नियतं सङ्गरहितमरागद्वेषतः कृतम् ।

अफलप्रेप्सुना कर्म यत्तत्सात्त्विकमुच्यते ॥ १८-२३॥

यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म साहङ्कारेण वा पुनः ।

क्रियते बहुलायासं तद्राजसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १८-२४॥

अनुबन्धं क्षयं हिंसामनपेक्ष्य च पौरुषम् ।

मोहादारभ्यते कर्म यत्तत्तामसमुच्यते ॥ १८-२५॥

(23-25) Also, always indifferent, acting without longing or hatred, with no desire for the fruits of action, that action is sāttvika (niyataṃ saṅgarahitamarāgadveṣataḥ kṛtam । aphalaprepsunā karma yattatsāttvikamucyate ॥ 18-23॥). Action which is done due to craving or passion, a feeling of being the doer, lots of effort, that action is rājasika (yattu kāmepsunā karma sāhaṅkāreṇa vā punaḥ । kriyate bahulāyāsaṃ tadrājasamudāhṛtam ॥ 18-24॥). Lastly, action which is undertaken without heed to consequences, loss or wastage, injury, with only virility, arises from delusion, is called tāmasika (anubandhaṃ kṣayaṃ hiṃsāmanapekṣya ca pauruṣam । mohādārabhyate karma yattattāmasamucyate ॥ 18-25॥).

मुक्तसङ्गोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वितः ।

सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योर्निर्विकारः कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥ १८-२६॥

रागी कर्मफलप्रेप्सुर्लुब्धो हिंसात्मकोऽशुचिः ।

हर्षशोकान्वितः कर्ता राजसः परिकीर्तितः ॥ १८-२७॥

अयुक्तः प्राकृतः स्तब्धः शठो नैष्कृतिकोऽलसः ।

विषादी दीर्घसूत्री च कर्ता तामस उच्यते ॥ १८-२८॥

(26-28) Furthermore, anyone free from attachment, without self-doer-ship, with firm enthusiasm and resolve, unaffected by success or failure is called sāttvika (siddhyasiddhyornirvikāraḥ) is sāttvika (muktasaṅgo’nahaṃvādī dhṛtyutsāhasamanvitaḥ । siddhyasiddhyornirvikāraḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate ॥ 18-26॥). Passionate, attached to the fruits of effort, greedy, inclined towards violence, impure, full of joy and sorrow, is called rājasika (rāgī karmaphalaprepsurlubdho hiṃsātmako’śuciḥ । harṣaśokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ ॥ 18-27॥). Generating absurd positions, vulgar, stubborn and arrogant, cheating, malicious, lazy, despondent, procrastinating, is called tāmasika (ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ śaṭho naiṣkṛtiko’lasaḥ । viṣādī dīrghasūtrī ca kartā tāmasa ucyate ॥ 18-28॥). 

बुद्धेर्भेदं धृतेश्चैव गुणतस्त्रिविधं श‍ृणु ।

प्रोच्यमानमशेषेण पृथक्त्वेन धनञ्जय ॥ १८-२९॥

प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च कार्याकार्ये भयाभये ।

बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥ १८-३०॥

यया धर्ममधर्मं च कार्यं चाकार्यमेव च ।

अयथावत्प्रजानाति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥ १८-३१॥

अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता ।

सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी ॥ १८-३२॥

(29-32) They have the intellect, ability to delineate, firmness to understand the threefold attributes that I declare to the granular level (buddherbhedaṃ dhṛteścaiva guṇatastrividhaṃ śa‍ṛṇu । procyamānamaśeṣeṇa pṛthaktvena dhanañjaya ॥ 18-29॥). They have the intellect to discriminate action from renunciation (nivrittim), action which should be done from that which should be left alone, fear from fearlessness and bondage from liberation are sāttvika (pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye । bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī ॥ 18-30॥). An intellect that is unable to discriminate between natural human state and chaos, correct and improper action is rājasika (yayā dharmamadharmaṃ ca kāryaṃ cākāryameva ca । ayathāvatprajānāti buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī ॥ 18-31॥). That intellect which is confused by what constitutes natural state and what does not and views everything in a perverse or contrary manner is tāmasika (adharmaṃ dharmamiti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā । sarvārthānviparītāṃśca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī ॥ 18-32॥).

धृत्या यया धारयते मनःप्राणेन्द्रियक्रियाः ।

योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥ १८-३३॥

यया तु धर्मकामार्थान्धृत्या धारयतेऽर्जुन ।

प्रसङ्गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥ १८-३४॥

यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च ।

न विमुञ्चति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी ॥ १८-३५॥

(33-35) He who has unswerving control over the functioning of cognition, life-force and senses through practice of yoga is sāttvika (dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manaḥprāṇendriyakriyāḥ । yogenāvyabhicāriṇyā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī ॥ 18-33॥). However, where control over the natural state desire and material possessions is exerted for fruits of one’s action, that firmness is rājasika (yayā tu dharmakāmārthāndhṛtyā dhārayate’rjuna । prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī ॥ 18-34॥). When a person refuses to give up expectations, fear, grief, despair, arrogance, and firmly refuses to abandon delusion, such a person is tāmasika (yayā svapnaṃ bhayaṃ śokaṃ viṣādaṃ madameva ca । na vimuñcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī ॥ 18-35॥).

सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं श‍ृणु मे भरतर्षभ ।

अभ्यासाद्रमते यत्र दुःखान्तं च निगच्छति ॥ १८-३६॥

यत्तदग्रे विषमिव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम् ।

तत्सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तमात्मबुद्धिप्रसादजम् ॥ १८-३७॥

विषयेन्द्रियसंयोगाद्यत्तदग्रेऽमृतोपमम् ।

परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥ १८-३८॥

यदग्रे चानुबन्धे च सुखं मोहनमात्मनः ।

निद्रालस्यप्रमादोत्थं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १८-३९॥

(36-39) Hear from me, the 3 kinds of happiness, the practice of which there is rejoicing from end of sorrow (sukhaṃ tvidānīṃ trividhaṃ śa‍ṛṇu me bharatarṣabha । abhyāsādramate yatra duḥkhāntaṃ ca nigacchati ॥ 18-36॥). In that which is like poison at first but like nectar on reaching self-realisation is sāttvika (yattadagre viṣamiva pariṇāme’mṛtopamam । tatsukhaṃ sāttvikaṃ proktamātmabuddhiprasādajam ॥ 18-37॥). That happiness which arises from the senses and sense-objects, and is like nectar at first but ends up like poison is rājasika (viṣayendriyasaṃyogādyattadagre’mṛtopamam । pariṇāme viṣamiva tatsukhaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam ॥ 18-38॥). Finally, that delusive pleasure (mohanam-atmanah) which arises from excessive sleep, laziness and negligence (nidra, alasya, pramada-uttam) is tāmasika (yadagre cānubandhe ca sukhaṃ mohanamātmanaḥ । nidrālasyapramādotthaṃ tattāmasamudāhṛtam ॥ 18-39॥).

न तदस्ति पृथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा पुनः ।

सत्त्वं प्रकृतिजैर्मुक्तं यदेभिः स्यात्त्रिभिर्गुणैः ॥ १८-४०॥

(40) Nothing, not even the deities are free from the influence of the guṇas, which is born from prakṛti (na tadasti pṛthivyāṃ vā divi deveṣu vā punaḥ । sattvaṃ prakṛtijairmuktaṃ yadebhiḥ syāttribhirguṇaiḥ ॥ 18-40॥).

ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूद्राणां च परन्तप ।

कर्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्वभावप्रभवैर्गुणैः ॥ १८-४१॥

शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च ।

ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम् ॥ १८-४२॥

शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् ।

दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम् ॥ १८-४३॥

कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम् ।

परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम् ॥ १८-४४॥

(41-44) The duties of brahmāṇas, kṣtriyas, vaiśyas and śūdras are distributed according to their personality traits (svabhava) and these traits are driven by guṇas (brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṃ śūdrāṇāṃ ca parantapa । karmāṇi pravibhaktāni svabhāvaprabhavairguṇaiḥ ॥ 18-41॥).  Personality traits of brahmāṇas are – serenity, subdued/ restrained, self-restraint/ denial, cleanliness, peacefulness, uprightness, awareness of the Self, sentience of the environment or kṣetra (vijñāna) and belief in the Vedas (śamo damastapaḥ śaucaṃ kṣāntirārjavameva ca । jñānaṃ vijñānamāstikyaṃ brahmakarma svabhāvajam ॥ 18-42॥). Next, personality traits of kṣtriyas – valour, virility, firmness, skill and cleverness, not flying in battle, generosity, and behaviour of a lord (śauryaṃ tejo dhṛtirdākṣyaṃ yuddhe cāpyapalāyanam । dānamīśvarabhāvaśca kṣātraṃ karma svabhāvajam ॥ 18-43॥). Personality traits of vaiśyas can be found in activities such as agriculture, taking care of cattle and trade. śūdras are born for service (kṛṣigaurakṣyavāṇijyaṃ vaiśyakarma svabhāvajam । paricaryātmakaṃ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāvajam ॥ 18-44॥).

स्वे स्वे कर्मण्यभिरतः संसिद्धिं लभते नरः ।

स्वकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच्छृणु ॥ १८-४५॥

यतः प्रवृत्तिर्भूतानां येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।

स्वकर्मणा तमभ्यर्च्य सिद्धिं विन्दति मानवः ॥ १८-४६॥

(45-46) Everyone has a zone of competence and when activity is performed in this zone (sva-karma-nirataha) with dedication, person finds utopia (samsiddhi) (sve sve karmaṇyabhirataḥ saṃsiddhiṃ labhate naraḥ । svakarmanirataḥ siddhiṃ yathā vindati tacchṛṇu ॥ 18-45॥). When acting within one’s competence (sva= self + karmana = action), if dedication of the act is to the Brahman, (sarva = all + idam = this + tatam = pervaded + pravrittih = evolution), mankind attains utopia (siddhim) (yataḥ pravṛttirbhūtānāṃ yena sarvamidaṃ tatam । svakarmaṇā tamabhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ ॥ 18-46॥).

श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।

स्वभावनियतं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥ १८-४७॥

सहजं कर्म कौन्तेय सदोषमपि न त्यजेत् ।

सर्वारम्भा हि दोषेण धूमेनाग्निरिवावृताः ॥ १८-४८॥

(47-48) It is better to act in conformance to one’s conditioning even though it may have fewer merits, rather than to perform good work which is the conditioning of others. Action performed in conformance to one’s own personality traits, no matter how badly performed, incurs no negativity (kilbhisham) (śreyānsvadharmo viguṇaḥ paradharmātsvanuṣṭhitāt । svabhāvaniyataṃ karma kurvannāpnoti kilbiṣam ॥ 18-47॥).  Innate nature is action. Even though action comes with its own challenges/ defects one should not abandon it, because when whenever activity is started, each effort will have challenges, like smoke which covers the fire (sahajaṃ karma kaunteya sadoṣamapi na tyajet । sarvārambhā hi doṣeṇa dhūmenāgnirivāvṛtāḥ ॥ 18-48॥).

असक्तबुद्धिः सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृहः ।

नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिं परमां सन्न्यासेनाधिगच्छति ॥ १८-४९॥

सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे ।

समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा ॥ १८-५०॥

बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च ।

शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च ॥ १८-५१॥

(49-51) A person whose logic is unattached at all times, has subdued the Self and is devoid of desire, who is completely without desire, that person attains supreme renunciate state (asaktabuddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigataspṛhaḥ । naiṣkarmyasiddhiṃ paramāṃ sannyāsenādhigacchati ॥ 18-49॥). Learn from me in brief, that supreme knowledge of how to reach the highest state of perfection and attain Brahman (siddhiṃ prāpto yathā brahma tathāpnoti nibodha me । samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā ॥ 18-50॥). Purify the intellect and join firmly to the Self through self-control. Then, relinquish sound related subjects and abandon duality such as like-dislike (buddhyā viśuddhayā yukto dhṛtyātmānaṃ niyamya ca । śabdādīnviṣayāṃstyaktvā rāgadveṣau vyudasya ca ॥ 18-51॥). 

विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानसः ।

ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः ॥ १८-५२॥

अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् ।

विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥ १८-५३॥

(52-53) Live in solitude, eat sparingly, keep speech, body and cognition yoked by meditation, while constantly taking refuge in dispassion (vairāgya) (viviktasevī laghvāśī yatavākkāyamānasaḥ । dhyānayogaparo nityaṃ vairāgyaṃ samupāśritaḥ ॥ 18-52॥). Abandon feeling of being the doer, all forms of power, arrogance, passion, anger, greed, then freed from non- possessiveness, peaceful Brahman transformation occurs (ahaṅkāraṃ balaṃ darpaṃ kāmaṃ krodhaṃ parigraham । vimucya nirmamaḥ śānto brahmabhūyāya kalpate ॥ 18-53॥). 

ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।

समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम् ॥ १८-५४॥

भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः ।

ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनन्तरम् ॥ १८-५५॥

सर्वकर्माण्यपि सदा कुर्वाणो मद्व्यपाश्रयः ।

मत्प्रसादादवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदमव्ययम् ॥ १८-५६॥

(54-56) On realising Brahman, this serene soul neither grieves nor has expectations. Treating all alike my devotee attains supreme (brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati । samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu madbhaktiṃ labhate parām ॥ 18-54॥). Devoted to me, he perceives Truth in the Self. Then, recognising that “I” and “Truth” are the same, thereafter there is merger (bhaktyā māmabhijānāti yāvānyaścāsmi tattvataḥ ।tato māṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tadanantaram ॥ 18-55॥). Performing all actions always while taking refuge in me, by my grace, he attains, the indestructible, eternal abode (sarvakarmāṇyapi sadā kurvāṇo madvyapāśrayaḥ । matprasādādavāpnoti śāśvataṃ padamavyayam ॥ 18-56॥). 

चेतसा सर्वकर्माणि मयि सन्न्यस्य मत्परः ।

बुद्धियोगमुपाश्रित्य मच्चित्तः सततं भव ॥ १८-५७॥

मच्चित्तः सर्वदुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि ।

अथ चेत्त्वमहङ्कारान्न श्रोष्यसि विनङ्क्ष्यसि ॥ १८-५८॥

(57-58) Consciously renounce all actions in devotion to me, always be with the approach of joining the intellect with the consciousness on me (cetasā sarvakarmāṇi mayi sannyasya matparaḥ । buddhiyogamupāśritya maccittaḥ satataṃ bhava ॥ 18-57॥). Devoted to me, you will overcome all obstacles, by my grace. However, if you listen to my words with the attitude of a doer, then you will lose everything (maccittaḥ sarvadurgāṇi matprasādāttariṣyasi । atha cettvamahaṅkārānna śroṣyasi vinaṅkṣyasi ॥ 18-58॥).

यदहङ्कारमाश्रित्य न योत्स्य इति मन्यसे ।

मिथ्यैष व्यवसायस्ते प्रकृतिस्त्वां नियोक्ष्यति ॥ १८-५९॥

स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा ।

कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात्करिष्यस्यवशोऽपि तत् ॥ १८-६०॥

(59-60) In fact, even if you take refuge in your attitude of doer-ship and use your cognitive abilities in refusing to fight, prakṛti will compel you and your resolve will be in vain (yadahaṅkāramāśritya na yotsya iti manyase । mithyaiṣa vyavasāyaste prakṛtistvāṃ niyokṣyati ॥ 18-59॥). Despite your delusion, you are bound by karma which drives your own nature and you cannot do as you wish. Indeed, you are helpless (svabhāvajena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā । kartuṃ necchasi yanmohātkariṣyasyavaśo’pi tat ॥ 18-60॥). 

ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशेऽर्जुन तिष्ठति ।

भ्रामयन्सर्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया ॥ १८-६१॥

तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्वभावेन भारत ।

तत्प्रसादात्परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम् ॥ १८-६२॥

(61-62) The Brahman is present in all beings. However, it is Brahman’s māyā (Brahmamaya) which causes all beings to imagine that they are mounted on a machine (īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṃ hṛddeśe’rjuna tiṣṭhati । bhrāmayansarvabhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā ॥ 18-61॥). So, seek refuge in that, with all your faculties in the grace of Brahman you will gain supreme peace and obtain eternal abode (tameva śaraṇaṃ gaccha sarvabhāvena bhārata । tatprasādātparāṃ śāntiṃ sthānaṃ prāpsyasi śāśvatam ॥ 18-62॥).

इति ते ज्ञानमाख्यातं गुह्याद्गुह्यतरं मया ।

विमृश्यैतदशेषेण यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥ १८-६३॥

सर्वगुह्यतमं भूयः श‍ृणु मे परमं वचः ।

इष्टोऽसि मे दृढमिति ततो वक्ष्यामि ते हितम् ॥ १८-६४॥

(63-64) Thus, an exclusive wisdom that is a secret has been declared by me to you. Reflect over it completely and take the course of action that you wish (iti te jñānamākhyātaṃ guhyādguhyataraṃ mayā । vimṛśyaitadaśeṣeṇa yathecchasi tathā kuru ॥ 18-63॥). The biggest secret of all, hear my supreme word. Deeply beloved you are to me; therefore, I will tell you that which is favourable to you (sarvaguhyatamaṃ bhūyaḥ śa‍ṛṇu me paramaṃ vacaḥ । iṣṭo’si me dṛḍhamiti tato vakṣyāmi te hitam ॥ 18-64॥).

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।

मामेवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे ॥ १८-६५॥

सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।

अहं त्वा सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥ १८-६६॥

(65-66) With your cognition fixed on me, devoted to me, sacrifice to me, prostrate to me, verily you will come to me, this truth I confirm to you because you are beloved of me (manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṃ namaskuru । māmevaiṣyasi satyaṃ te pratijāne priyo’si me ॥ 18-65॥). Abandoning all conditioning (sarva-dharma-parityajya) to me alone, take surrender, I will liberate you from all wretchedness, do not grieve (sarvadharmānparityajya māmekaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja । ahaṃ tvā sarvapāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ ॥ 18-66॥).

इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन ।

न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति ॥ १८-६७॥

य इदं परमं गुह्यं मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति ।

भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा मामेवैष्यत्यसंशयः ॥ १८-६८॥

(67-68) You should not share this with anyone who does not practice austerities, never to one who is not devoted, one who does not pay attention or is can be blamed in his actions or one who is jealous (idaṃ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana । na cāśuśrūṣave vācyaṃ na ca māṃ yo’bhyasūyati ॥ 18-67॥).  This supreme secret shall be declared to those who are supremely devoted to me, who undoubtedly shall come to me (ya idaṃ paramaṃ guhyaṃ madbhakteṣvabhidhāsyati । bhaktiṃ mayi parāṃ kṛtvā māmevaiṣyatyasaṃśayaḥ ॥ 18-68॥).

न च तस्मान्मनुष्येषु कश्चिन्मे प्रियकृत्तमः ।

भविता न च मे तस्मादन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि ॥ १८-६९॥

अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादमावयोः ।

ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः ॥ १८-७०॥

(69-70) And there is none dearer to me among men who works with happiness, there shall be none dearer on Earth (na ca tasmānmanuṣyeṣu kaścinme priyakṛttamaḥ । bhavitā na ca me tasmādanyaḥ priyataro bhuvi ॥ 18-69॥). And who shall study this consensual conversation (sam-vaadam) of ours on natural states through sacrifice of intellect (jñānayajñena), him I shall like and this is my intuition (adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃvādamāvayoḥ । jñānayajñena tenāhamiṣṭaḥ syāmiti me matiḥ ॥ 18-70॥).

श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च श‍ृणुयादपि यो नरः ।

सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम् ॥ १८-७१॥

कच्चिदेतच्छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा ।

कच्चिदज्ञानसम्मोहः प्रनष्टस्ते धनञ्जय ॥ १८-७२॥

(71-72) Even that person who hears with integrity (śraddhā), without envy (anasooyah) will also be liberated and be in a happy world, begetting the benefits of stain-free action (puṇyakarmaṇām) (śraddhāvānanasūyaśca śa‍ṛṇuyādapi yo naraḥ । so’pi muktaḥ śubhā~llokānprāpnuyātpuṇyakarmaṇām ॥ 18-71॥). Have you heard this with a single pointed focussed consciousness, Arjuna? Have the delusions arising from ignorance been destroyed? (kaccidetacchrutaṃ pārtha tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā । kaccidajñānasammohaḥ pranaṣṭaste dhanañjaya ॥ 18-72॥)

अर्जुन उवाच ।

नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत ।

स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव ॥ १८-७३॥

Arjuna said (73) My delusions have been destroyed, mindfulness has been gained through your grace, I am freed from doubts and firm. I will do as you say (naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtirlabdhā tvatprasādānmayācyuta । sthito’smi gatasandehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṃ tava ॥ 18-73॥).

सञ्जय उवाच ।

इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः ।

संवादमिममश्रौषमद्भुतं रोमहर्षणम् ॥ १८-७४॥

व्यासप्रसादाच्छ्रुतवानेतद्गुह्यमहं परम् ।

योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम् ॥ १८-७५॥

राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम् ।

केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः ॥ १८-७६॥

तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः ।

विस्मयो मे महान् राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः ॥ १८-७७॥

यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः ।

तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम ॥ १८-७८॥

Sanjaya said (74-78) Thus I heard this high-level dialogue between Vaasudeiva and Parth, this visionary, wonderful experience that causes my hair to stand on end (ityahaṃ vāsudevasya pārthasya ca mahātmanaḥ । saṃvādamimamaśrauṣamadbhutaṃ romaharṣaṇam ॥ 18-74॥). Through the grace of Vyaasa, I have heard this supreme secret on Yoga from the Lord of Yoga, Krishna directly, declaring himself (vyāsaprasādācchrutavānetadguhyamahaṃ param । yogaṃ yogeśvarātkṛṣṇātsākṣātkathayataḥ svayam ॥ 18-75॥). King, have remembered again and again, this wonderful and virtuous dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna, I rejoice again and again (rājansaṃsmṛtya saṃsmṛtya saṃvādamimamadbhutam । keśavārjunayoḥ puṇyaṃ hṛṣyāmi ca muhurmuhuḥ ॥ 18-76॥). And then having remembered again and again the most wonderful form of Hari I wonder, my great king, again and again (tacca saṃsmṛtya saṃsmṛtya rūpamatyadbhutaṃ hareḥ । vismayo me mahān rājanhṛṣyāmi ca punaḥ punaḥ ॥ 18-77॥). Wherever there is the Lord of Yoga Krishna, wherever there is Partha the archer, there will always be prosperity, victory, happiness, stable conduct is my conviction (yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanurdharaḥ । tatra śrīrvijayo bhūtirdhruvā nītirmatirmama ॥ 18-78॥)  

With this, ends Śimad-bhagavad-gītā

Om-tat-sat (hope that this adds value)

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