Post By: Vishwanath Iyer Published on: December 12, 2016 Reading time: 36 minutes
School of Yoga is profoundly grateful to Saṃskṛta scholars and academics Pijus Kanti Pal (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Dolon Chanpa Mondal for their support in Saṃskṛta transliteration and quality control.
Śraddhā is the quality of dedication, sincerity, steadfastness and desire for perfection that a person exhibits when performing any action (karma). Also, Śrī Kṛṣṇa clarifies that śraddhā is the ability to focus on the task at hand with all attention, without worrying excessively about the outcome of the sacrifice.
Another critical aspect of śraddhā that Śrī Kṛṣṇa clarifies, is that capability or quality of outcome are not key drivers in any activity. It is śraddhā that matters. Hence, Śrī Kṛṣṇa delinks quality of outcome from quality of input, clearly asserting the ascendancy of effort over outcome.
Arjuna said: What is the nature of those that do not follow the scriptures, but perform sacrifice with devotion and sincerity? Is it sāttvika, rājasika or tāmasika? The devotion and sincerity of any person is determined by his innate nature (svabhāva – sva = self + bhāva = expression), which could be sāttvika, rājasika or tāmasika.
Of course! that is the essence of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā and everything Śrī Kṛṣṇa is trying to say. Let us look at karma from first principles.
Rāja-yoga is a stream of yoga that tries to allow a person to live in the world while trying to improve his or her capability to live Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā. The first two steps of Rāja-yoga are yama (behaviour control) and niyama (self-control or internal discipline) which are very useful in improving the qualities of sincerity and dedication (śraddhā) in a person. What are these methods?
Yama – Generally, stimulus comes from more than one source, hence it is rare that the stimulus is received with complete attention (ekāgratā). The state of awareness, called vijñāna (cognition of sentience in any situation) covers reception, comparison with conditioning and response. Any drop of awareness creates error in estimation and expectation or māyā, both, in the manifesting and receiving individual (puruṣa). This can generate stress, especially if the situation calls for a high degree of adjustment and is difficult to cope. Also, one gets stressed if the situation results in confrontation, or there is an insensitive or irrelevant response. Ones reactions to stimulus and ability to work with others in harmony or bring balance into his or her tasks and relationships are fundamental building blocks for a sustainable solution to stress.
Yama can mean “rein, curb, or bridle, discipline or restraint” when dealing with the environment. Therefore, yama means exercising restraint in reaction to stimulus.
Patañjali-yoga-sūtra recommends six key elements in yama that cover most aspects of behaviour with the external environment, these being non-violence (ahiṃsā), truth or integrity (satya), sexual continence (brahmacaryam), non-stealing (asteya), equanimity (aparigraha) and diet control (mitāhāra).
Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā recommends – non-violence (ahiṃsā), truth or integrity (satya), sexual continence (brahmacarya), forgiveness (kṣamā), self-discipline (drīti), compassion (dayā), frankness or being straightforward (ārjava), diet control (mitāhāra) and cleanliness (śauca).
Non-Violence (ahiṃsā) – to understand non-violence, one must understand violence and its relationship to anger, fear, frustration, sexuality, ambition and power.
Yama can be defined as the ability to react in a non-threatening manner to stimulus contrary to one’s dharma (conditioning), controlling anger, frustration, and giving positive feedback.
We know that violence covers a vast spectrum – from internet abuse and bullying to genocide, where entire populations are exterminated. There are 3 types of violence (ahiṃsā) – tāmasika (confused/ delusional), rājasika (passionate) & sāttvika (balanced).
Tāmasika violence comes out of lack of knowledge and is driven primarily by inertia, fear and confusion. Rājasika violence primarily out of passion and is driven by emotions such as anger, lust, greed, ambition etc. Sāttvika violence is very difficult to achieve and is characterized by high communication and patience.
Example: A case of a parent scolding a truant child. When the parent scolds the child because he or she is afraid of what society will say that it is, then it is tāmasika. However, when the parent tries to superimpose his or her own expectations/ ambitions on the child is rājasika. Finally, when the parent scolds the child for deviation of a value that has been explained often, then the reason is sāttvika, this is characterized by the parent trying to separate the person from the problem.
Truth or satya – truth or satya is one of the most difficult but vital elements of behaviour control or yama.
There is only one truth, the imperishable Brahman or (paramarth-sathya). Everything else is materiality (māyā) or (samvritti-sathya), which is driven by the senses (indriyas) and shrouds the intellect (buddhi) as well as cognition (manas), constantly impacting sense of self-worth (asmitā) and conditioning (dharma).
But, as absolute truth (paramarth-sathya), while being the ultimate goal of yoga is hard to understand, cognise and experience, a more easily implementable derivative of absolute truth, called conditional truth (samvritti-sathya) is better suited for daily use. Samvritti-sathya comprises empirical truth (vyāvahārika-satya) or truth that is supported by evidence and perceptual truth (prātibhāsika-satya), one that is not backed by evidence.
We can see that truth in this world of illusion is difficult to define and easy to deflect. It is also hard to understand, interpret, experience and perform due the shroud of perceptions always surrounding it which comes from our sense of self-worth (asmitā), which is based on our conditioning (dharma). So, since truth is so difficult to achieve consistently, an interim and more easily implementable aspect called integrity is better suited for daily use. Integrity is the ability to work according to the requirements of the situation without fear, favour or disproportionate personal gain.
Non-stealing (asteya) – stealing or theft is taking anything which does not belong to us, without permission. This can be expanded to include effort. Some examples might be:
Sexual continence or control (brahmacarya) is the ability to control seminal discharge. However, it does not mean stoppage of sexual activity. Therefore, one can conclude that brahmacarya is the responsible management of sexual activity with no wastage of seminal discharge.
Procreation is deeply embedded in our psyche and need for sexual activity is natural. However, it is easily possible for one to lose control and engage in indiscriminate activity, thus losing seminal fluid.
Especially today, as more people and business cross countries and continents, sensitivity and awareness needs to be integrated with removal of sexual bias to each other’s cultural and racial background in all relationships.
Controlled diet (mitāhāra) – traditional belief is that we are what we eat. Food is a major source of nutrition. Nutrients that nourish the body can only come from diet. Therefore, it is important that we not only eat the right foods but also adopt correct eating habits. Poor food habits lead to ill-heath and stress.
Niyama (self-control) is the process of increasing our internal discipline and self-control. While yama is the process of harmonising our relationship with our environment, niyama is the practice of assimilating impact of stimulus with our sense of self-worth (asmitā). So, niyama and yama increase harmony between our sense of self-worth (asmitā) and awareness of the Self (jñāna) within the stimuli-response cycle.
Hatha Yoga Pradeepika (Chapter 1) – the 10 rules of niyama are – austerity (tapas), contentment (santoṣa), belief in the Vedas (āstikya), charity (dāna), prayer to God (īśvara-pūjana), listening to spiritual teaching (siddhānta-vākya), modesty (hrī), repetition of sacred word (japa), and sacrifice with fire (hūta).
Patañjali-yoga-sūtra (Chapter 2) – recommends cleanliness, (śauca), contentment (santoṣam), introspection (svādhyāyam), austerity (tapas), surrender to a God (īśvarapraṇidhānam)
Environmental hygiene is also very important – almost all major illnesses which result in lost time and cost come from lack of awareness of the criticality of hygiene. In fact, spitting, defecation, urination and other practices such as smoking chewing tobacco etc. result in water-borne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, leptospirosis and air-borne diseases such as throat infection etc. Clearly, an individual is responsible, not just for his own health, but also for the health of his neighbor and society at large.
Example – in 1330s, a plague hit China and spread to Europe in 1347 and by 1351 had reached all corners of Europe and the Middle East. It had the effect of killing around 35% of Europe’s population (35 million people in 2 years). Overall, it reduced the world’s population from 450 million to between 350 and 375 million.
During this time, it was noticed that Jews, living in Ghettos away from the village suffered lower deaths. This was on account of strict Rabbinical Laws on cleanliness followed by them. The water that they used was from wells in their backyard and not community wells leading to greater control over bacterial infection. Also, injunctions on personal hygiene and disposal of waste ensured that the carriers, such as rats were less likely to infect the community. Clearly, this ritual practice protected Jews long before antiseptics and understanding of germs.
Similarly, in India, there are strict rules for cleanliness, especially when eating. Indian’s eat only with the right hand. Eating from another person’s plate, something that has come in contact with your mouth, your saliva or your plate is not allowed and called ‘jootha’ (in North India), ‘ushth’ (in Western India), ‘etho’ (in Bengal), ‘aitha’ (in Orissa), ‘echal’ (in Tamil Nadu), ‘enjulu’ (in Karnataka), or ‘engili’ (in Andhra Pradesh).
In many parts of India, one is not allowed to touch lacto based ghee, milk, curds etc. after touching any food that has been cooked, unless hands have been washed, so as to avoid contamination of vegetable-based dishes with animal products and vice-versa.
It is also normal in many parts of India to use separate utensils for cooking, storing raw ingredients and for eating and to clean them separately.
Contentment (santoṣa) – any feeling of happiness is fleeting, but the sense of peace is more lasting. Also, contentment increases calmness. As a result, there is increased clarity of thought and reduced conflict. This leads to greater productivity without agitation within, and in the environment. Finally, contentment increases positive energy in us. But, how does one recognize this & more importantly, imbibe it?
Self-inquiry or examination (svādhyāya) – literally means, “to get close to something”. Consequently, it means to study oneself through meditation or contemplation (mīmāṃsā).
Learning has two components – a hard component and a soft component. So, when we review any situation, both hard and soft components are reviewed, as a result there is learning. This is reflection (mīmāṃsā) and is an element of introspection.
Austerity (tapas) is the exercise of increasing awareness of the Self by practice of austerities. Austerities come from self-denial of wants and suppression of desire. Tapas requires 2 qualities: denial and internal cleaning.
Charity (dāna) – means giving without expectation of return.
There are many types of sacrifices or selfless giving and the most important, in order of significance are;
Of all forms of charity (dāna), those where there is direct benefit to another such as anna-dāna (feeding others) are considered higher forms of charity (dāna), especially because food is life. This is followed by any charity which requires sacrifice of one’s personal time or energy such as kriyā (effort), vidyā (knowledge sharing) and vastra-dāna (giving clothes to the needy). Finally, on the list of charities that increase altruistic sensitivities are those that have no direct involvement and there is no control over the outcome, such as lakṣmī-dāna (money).
But this is not to take the sheen away from any form of sacrifice or giving. All forms of giving and sacrifice result in a feeling of goodness and altruism which opens the sense of identity to awareness and introspection (jñāna).
Dedication (śraddhā) – is the ability to complete a chosen task to the best of one’s ability with sincerity, focus on result, patience, dedication and willingness subsume personal preferences to complete the task. Often, this may mean working with severe constraints, with no assistance or support, maybe in adverse conditions, with no recognition or resources – including money and having to overcome failure as well as frustration. The qualities that one requires in these circumstances are;
Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production system penned “The 10 precepts to think, act and win”. These are actually simple and valuable rules for implementing śraddhā.
This is something many people forget, to tell the most important thing first and give details later. For example – after Hanuman and team visited Lanka and met Sīta, they returned to Sugrīva to inform him. However, they did not come in immediately, but wasted an orchard. This distracted Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva from the anxiety they would have experienced when waiting for Hanuman to come in from the time the forward posts reported that Hanuman was sighted. When angry Sugrīva ordered Hanuman to be brought in, the first words that he uttered to Rama were “I saw Sīta”; not how they went, how they overcame obstacles etc., just the most critical strategic information! How often people beat around the bush and forget that the information is more important than the details.
The Sanskrit diacritic words are in red italics.
ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥ १७-१॥
Arjuna said (1) What about those that abandon operating procedures and simply perform sacrifices with dedication? What becomes of them? What are the conditions of sattva, rajas and tamas (ye śāstravidhimutsṛjya yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ । teṣāṃ niṣṭhā tu kā kṛṣṇa sattvamāho rajastamaḥ ॥ 17-1॥).
त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥ १७-२॥
सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत ।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥ १७-३॥
Śrī Kṛṣṇa replied (2-3) Now, hear the threefold dedication of the embodied which is inherent in sāttvika, rājasika and even tāmasika (trividhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṃ sā svabhāvajā । sāttvikī rājasī caiva tāmasī ceti tāṃ śaṛṇu ॥ 17-2॥). Conformance of nature in everyone is as per his dedication. Śraddhā determines the person, truly he is what his dedication is (sattvānurūpā sarvasya śraddhā bhavati bhārata । śraddhāmayo’yaṃ puruṣo yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ ॥ 17-3॥).
यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः ।
प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥ १७-४॥
(4) Those of sāttvika qualities worship the deities, rājasika people worship demi-gods and demons, tāmasika people worship ghosts and myriad nature spirits (yajante sāttvikā devānyakṣarakṣāṃsi rājasāḥ । pretānbhūtagaṇāṃścānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ ॥ 17-4॥).
अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः ।
दम्भाहङ्कारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः ॥ १७-५॥
कर्षयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः ।
मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान् ॥ १७-६॥
(5-6) Those people not following proper procedures, practicing terrible austerity, given to feeling of doer-ship, hypocrisy, desire, attachment and power (aśāstravihitaṃ ghoraṃ tapyante ye tapo janāḥ । dambhāhaṅkārasaṃyuktāḥ kāmarāgabalānvitāḥ ॥ 17-5॥). Senselessly torturing all the elements in the body and me who dwells in the body, these are known to be of demonic resolve (karṣayantaḥ śarīrasthaṃ bhūtagrāmamacetasaḥ । māṃ caivāntaḥśarīrasthaṃ tānviddhyāsuraniścayān ॥ 17-6॥).
आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः ।
यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं शृणु ॥ १७-७॥
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥ १७-८॥
(7-8) Indeed, of all, food is critical in the three paths of sacrifice, austerity and charity, hear the distinction between them (āhārastvapi sarvasya trividho bhavati priyaḥ । yajñastapastathā dānaṃ teṣāṃ bhedamimaṃ śaṛṇu ॥ 17-7॥). Those that promote life, value, strength, health, happiness, amicability, are tasty, viscous, substantial, agreeable foods are dear to sāttvika people (āyuḥsattvabalārogyasukhaprītivivardhanāḥ । rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛdyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ ॥ 17-8॥).
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥ १७-९॥
यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत् ।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥ १७-१०॥
(9-10) Food that is bitter, sour, salty, very pungent and fiery, dry, burning are liked by rājasika people and bring pain, grief and disease (kaṭvamlalavaṇātyuṣṇatīkṣṇarūkṣavidāhinaḥ । āhārā rājasasyeṣṭā duḥkhaśokāmayapradāḥ ॥ 17-9॥). That which is stale, tasteless, putrid, rotten, left-overs and also impure foods are liked by tāmasika (yātayāmaṃ gatarasaṃ pūti paryuṣitaṃ ca yat । ucchiṣṭamapi cāmedhyaṃ bhojanaṃ tāmasapriyam ॥ 17-10॥).
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।
यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥ १७-११॥
अभिसन्धाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।
इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥ १७-१२॥
विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥ १७-१३॥
(11-13) Those not longing for fruits of sacrifice that is performed as per process, which is offered as it should be, with their cognition steady is sāttvika (aphalākāṅkṣibhiryajño vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate । yaṣṭavyameveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sāttvikaḥ ॥ 17-11॥). Those seeking fruits by fraudulent means and also which is offered as sacrifice, that is rājasika (abhisandhāya tu phalaṃ dambhārthamapi caiva yat । ijyate bharataśreṣṭha taṃ yajñaṃ viddhi rājasam ॥ 17-12॥). Any effort that does not follow process, food is not shared, no mantras are chanted, no emoluments are made and there is no dedication, that sacrifice is called tāmasika (vidhihīnamasṛṣṭānnaṃ mantrahīnamadakṣiṇam । śraddhāvirahitaṃ yajñaṃ tāmasaṃ paricakṣate ॥ 17-13॥).
देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् ।
ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥ १७-१४॥
अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् ।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥ १७-१५॥
मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥ १७-१६॥
(14-16) Those that worship the deities, twice-born, teachers, awareness, purity, straight-forwardness, celibacy, non-injury is called austerity of the body (devadvijaguruprājñapūjanaṃ śaucamārjavam । brahmacaryamahiṃsā ca śārīraṃ tapa ucyate ॥ 17-14॥). Causing no excitement in speech, truthful, pleasant and beneficial which comes from self-study is austerity of speech (anudvegakaraṃ vākyaṃ satyaṃ priyahitaṃ ca yat । svādhyāyābhyasanaṃ caiva vāṅmayaṃ tapa ucyate ॥ 17-15॥). Serenity of cognition, good-heartedness, silence, self-control, clean sentiment, this is called tapas of the cognition (manaḥ prasādaḥ saumyatvaṃ maunamātmavinigrahaḥ । bhāvasaṃśuddhirityetattapo mānasamucyate ॥ 17-16॥).
श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥ १७-१७॥
सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥ १७-१८॥
मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः ।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १७-१९॥
(17-19) These threefold austerity, when practiced with dedication my men united with no desire for the fruit are called sāttvika (śraddhayā parayā taptaṃ tapastattrividhaṃ naraiḥ । aphalākāṅkṣibhiryuktaiḥ sāttvikaṃ paricakṣate ॥ 17-17॥). When hypocrisy is practiced in austerity with the object of gaining praise, honour or wealth, that is said to be rājasa and this is unstable and transient (satkāramānapūjārthaṃ tapo dambhena caiva yat । kriyate tadiha proktaṃ rājasaṃ calamadhruvam ॥ 17-18॥). When the self is encased in delusion and includes practice of torture in the austerity or is for destroying another, that is declared as tāmasika (mūḍhagrāheṇātmano yatpīḍayā kriyate tapaḥ । parasyotsādanārthaṃ vā tattāmasamudāhṛtam ॥ 17-19॥).
दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥ १७-२०॥
यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥ १७-२१॥
अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १७-२२॥
(20-22) When charity is given without expectation of return, in a proper place, at the correct time and to a worthy person, that charity is deemed sāttvika (dātavyamiti yaddānaṃ dīyate’nupakāriṇe । deśe kāle ca pātre ca taddānaṃ sāttvikaṃ smṛtam ॥ 17-20॥). Indeed, when it is given with an expectation of return favour and reluctantly, that charity is called rājasika (yattu pratyupakārārthaṃ phalamuddiśya vā punaḥ । dīyate ca parikliṣṭaṃ taddānaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam ॥ 17-21॥). A gift that is given without heeding place or time and given without respect, even insult, that charity is called tāmasika (adeśakāle yaddānamapātrebhyaśca dīyate । asatkṛtamavajñātaṃ tattāmasamudāhṛtam ॥ 17-22॥).
ॐतत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥ १७-२३॥
तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥ १७-२४॥
(23-24) Om-tat-sat (pranava–brahman-value creation), thus is the designation for brahman, the threefold brahman, Veda and sacrifices have been created by the ancients (oṃtatsaditi nirdeśo brahmaṇastrividhaḥ smṛtaḥ । brāhmaṇāstena vedāśca yajñāśca vihitāḥ purā ॥ 17-23॥). So, as enjoined in the scriptures, OM is thus uttered every time by the students of brahman when acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity are begun (tasmādomityudāhṛtya yajñadānatapaḥkriyāḥ । pravartante vidhānoktāḥ satataṃ brahmavādinām ॥ 17-24॥).
तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।
दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥ १७-२५॥
सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥ १७-२६॥
(25-26) Tat is the act of sacrifice, austerity and charity without desire for fruits in any action generated by seekers of liberation (tadityanabhisandhāya phalaṃ yajñatapaḥkriyāḥ । dānakriyāśca vividhāḥ kriyante mokṣakāṅkṣibhiḥ ॥ 17-25॥). Sat is the sentiment of reality, sentiment of goodness and thus, sat word is thus used in auspicious acts also (sadbhāve sādhubhāve ca sadityetatprayujyate । praśaste karmaṇi tathā sacchabdaḥ pārtha yujyate ॥ 17-26॥).
यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।
कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥ १७-२७॥
अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् ।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥ १७-२८॥
(27-28) In sacrifice, in austerity, in charity and steadfastness, sat is thus called and action undertaken for anything is called sat (yajñe tapasi dāne ca sthitiḥ saditi cocyate । karma caiva tadarthīyaṃ sadityevābhidhīyate ॥ 17-27॥). Without dedication, when sacrifice is given, austerity is performed and the outcome is called asat and has no value here or hereafter (aśraddhayā hutaṃ dattaṃ tapastaptaṃ kṛtaṃ ca yat । asadityucyate pārtha na ca tatpretya no iha ॥ 17-28॥).