Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā – chapter 11 (viśvarūpadarśana-yoga)

Post By: Published on: December 15, 2016 Reading time: 39 minutes


School of Yoga is profoundly grateful to Saṃskṛta scholars and academics Pijus Kanti Pal (pal.pijuskanti@gmail.com) and Dolon Chanpa Mondal for their support in Saṃskṛta transliteration and quality control.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11 (yoga of the vision of the universal form – viśvarūpadarśana-yoga).


Arjuna said – I’m now convinced about your origin and capabilities and wish to see you in the form you spoke about. Therefore, if you think I have the capability, show me.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said:  OK. Take a look. Behold the Ādityas, Vasus, Rudras, Aśvinis, Maruts and other marvels. Also, see the dynamic and static universe integral to my being. But, for this, I have to give you special vision capability.

Saying this, Śrī Kṛṣṇa showed him his divine form, with many mouths and eyes, marvellous sights, divine ornaments and weapons. He was wearing heavenly garlands, anointed with celestial perfumes – all resplendent and boundless with faces on all sides.

Arjuna saw many universes with its divisions integrated into one. Hair on end, an amazed Arjuna spoke to Śrī Kṛṣṇa with joined palms.
  • I see all the Gods in your body and hosts of all types of beings, Brahma, all the Ṛṣis, and celestial serpents. You are infinite on all sides, with countless arms, stomachs, mouths and eyes.
  • In fact, I cannot see your beginning, middle or end. I see you wearing a crown, with a club and discuss.
  • In fact, radiance blazes everywhere, hard to look at, all round dazzling like a flaming fire or sun and immeasurable.
  • You are imperishable, the supreme being, the treasure-house of the universe, the imperishable guardian of eternal dharma, the ancient puruṣa.
  • Also, you are without beginning, middle or end; infinite in power, of infinite reach, the suns and moons being your eyes, the sacrificial fire is your mouth, heating the universe with your radiance.
  • The space between heaven and earth in all quarters are filled by you, everyone is trembling with fear.
  • Also, hosts of devas enter into you, great Ṛṣis and siddhas pronounce “May it be well”. The Rudras, Ādityas, Vasus, Sādhyās, Viśvas, Aśvinis, Maruts, Uṣṇapās, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Asuras, Siddhas all gaze at you in amazement.
  • Consequently, seeing your immeasurable form with so many mouths eyes, arms, thighs and feet, with many stomachs and tusks, the worlds are terror-struck as I am.
  • When I see you touching the sky, blazing in colours, with mouth wide open and fiery eyes, my heart trembles in fear, not knowing the four quarters, finding neither courage nor peace.
  • Also, all the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra with hosts of kings, Bhīṣma, Droṇa, Sūtaputra along with our warrior chiefs enter hurrying into your mouth, terrible with tusks and fearful to look at. In fact, some are sticking in the gaps between the teeth with their heads crushed to powder. In truth, they rush into your flaming mouths like torrents of river rushing into an ocean or moths rushing into a blazing fire to their destruction. Devouring everything, you lick your lips.
  • Your rays fill the world with your radiance, so fierce is your form. As a result of this vision, I bow to you, have mercy. I desire to know you; I know not your purpose.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said: I am the world destroying Time, engaged in wiping out the world. In fact, even without you, the hostile armies will not survive. So, stop worrying, arise and get fame. Conquer your enemies and get fame. In fact, I have already killed them, you are merely the instrument.  Slay Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna and others who are already doomed by me.

Sañjaya said: Having heard Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna, with joined palms, trembling, prostrating, addressed Śrī Kṛṣṇa in a voice chocked and overwhelmed with fear. It is true, oh Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the world sings your praises, the evil flee while the Siddhas bow to you. And why should they not, you are the primal cause of Brahmā, you are imperishable, the being and non being, that which is supreme, the ancient puruṣa, the knower and knowable, and the supreme abode.

  • You pervade this Universe. You are Vāyu, Agni, Varuṇa, Moon, Prajāpati and the ancestor. Salutations to you a thousand times and again, before and after, on all sides. You are all.
  • If I have been casual with you, it is from ignorance. Please forgive me if I have insulted you without knowing your greatness.
  • You are the father of this moving and static world, the greatest Guru, for none can excel you. So, I prostrate before you, forgive me. Bear with me as a father to a son, friend to a friend and a lover with his beloved. I rejoice at your universal form, but I am afraid and request you to show me that form which I can relate to, with mace and discuss in hand.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said: You have been privileged to see something which no study, sacrifice, gifts or rituals can achieve. Don’t be afraid, I will revert to my original form.

Sañjaya said: With this, Śrī Kṛṣṇa went back to his original form.

Arjuna said: I feel calmer, seeing you in Human form.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said: It’s not easy to see this form, but by unswerving devotion as devotee can see this reality. He who works from me, accepts me as Supreme, is devoted to me, free from attachment and hatred to any being.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11, viśvarūpadarśana-yoga.

The sāṅkhya of mahat (the conceptual base of overall creation).

  • Everything comes from the Source/ Truth/ Origin or Brahman.  This is a state of eternal, infinite, unchanging peace.
  • The Brahman experiences existential anxiety (do I exist?) and desires self-expression (I want to see myself).
  • Brahman sacrifices itself to create itself. This is primordial sacrifice ādiyajña (Śrī Kṛṣṇa).
  • From Brahman, nirguṇa-brahman (Brahman without attributes) and saguṇa-brahman (Brahman with attributes, Īśvara or Supreme Soul – Paramātmā).
  • Saguṇa-brahman or Īśvara is the weave of puruṣa (primordial Identity, Self or experiencer) and prakṛti (primordial manifestation or energy).
  • Prakṛti and puruṣa weave with each other to create primordial karma (action).
  • From karma (action), guṇa (attributes) emerges. Guṇa-s are an outcome of the weave of puruṣa and prakṛti.
  • When puruṣa (experiencer) is ascendant over prakṛti (manifestation), it is called tamas (delusion). Similarly, when prakṛti is ascendant over puruṣa, the attribute is called rajas (passion or flow) and finally, when puruṣa and prakṛti are in balance, this is called sattva (harmony or balance).
  • Puruṣa and prakṛti continue weaving to create hiraṇyagarbha (golden egg) or brahmāṇḍa (Brahma’s egg or Cosmos) the universe that houses all  
  • Since karma creates transactions and bonds, these result in creation of multiple identities/ souls (ātma) of varying complexities. The primordial Identity, which is the identity of hiraṇyagarbha is called ViṣṇuViṣṇu is the repository of māyā (farce).

What Arjuna saw was hiraṇyagarbha. Since, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is ādiyajña, this would have been natural and easy. Therefore, the details that Arjuna saw are no surprise, because this is what one would see in brahmāṇḍa or hiraṇyagarbha (golden egg or Cosmos).

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11, viśvarūpadarśana-yoga.

Architecture of the cosmos (brahmāṇḍa or hiraṇyagarbha).

It would be appropriate to detail the various worlds / realms that are supposed to exist in the Indian cosmic system (brahmāṇḍa or hiraṇyagarbha) (reference – https://www.ganeshaspeaks.com/predictions/astrology/14-lokas-of-existence-in-hindu-mythology/) and (http://ancientvoice.wikidot.com/article:the-fourteen-worlds). This also forms part of the brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa, viṣṇu-purāṇa and bhāgavad-purāṇa (2.5).

There are 14 regions of existence or loka according to nīlamata-purāṇa.

Seven are considered vyāhṛtis or ūrdhvaloka (mystical utterances of the seven regions) and remaining seven are considered pātālaloka (lower regions).

The seven vyāhṛtis (mystical regions) are,

  1. Satya-loka (Region of Truth) – This is the region of Truth, where there is no death.
  2. Tapaḥ-loka (Region of austerity) – This is the region which comes out of austerity. This region is inhabited by Vaibharaajas and cannot be consumed by fire.
  3. Jana-loka (jana means people) – This is considered to be the region inhibited by the sons of Brahmā such as Sanandana.
  4. Mahar-loka (region of the maharṣis) – This is a region beyond dhruva and the region of the maharṣis. This may also mean the Milky Way.
  5. Suvar-loka (Viṣṇu-purāṇa) – region beyond bhuvar-loka, considered to be beyond the Sun up until dhruva (Pole star) which is supposed to be ruled by Indra and his daivas. This may include the entire Solar system. It has 9 orbits (maṇḍala) called dhruva-maṇḍala, śani-maṇḍala (Saturn), bṛhaspati-maṇḍala (Jupiter), aṅgāraka-maṇḍala (Mars), sukra-maṇḍala (Venus), budha-maṇḍala (Mercury), nakṣatra-maṇḍala (Constellation), candra-maṇḍala (Moon), sūrya-maṇḍala (Sun). 
  6. Bhuvar-loka (region of energy) – This is also known as (dyu-loka or jyotir-loka), this is the region of existence where energy predominates and there is no matter (this may also be equated with the region where earth’s magnetic field exists). Viṣṇu-purāṇa 7 says that it is the space between Earth and the Sun, where siddhas move.
  7. Bhūr-loka (region of existence) – This is plane of existence of all humans as we know it. It consists of a central land mass (jambudvīpa) surrounded by six other land masses called Plakṣa, Sālmala, Kuśa, Krauñca, Sāka, and Puṣkara.  This area consists of mountains, oceans, rivers etc. 

Pātālaloka or bila-svarga (lower regions of existence) comprises.

  1. Atala-loka – Region ruled by Bala, who with his mystical powers has created 3 types of women in a yawn; svairinī – self-willed, who like to marry men from their own group, kāminī – lustful, who marry men from any group and pañcaśālīs, who keep changing partners.
  2. Vitala-loka – Region ruled by hara-bhāva, where gold called hataka is created
  3. Sutala-loka – Region created by Vishwakarman, ruled by Bali Chakravarti.
  4. Talātala-loka – Region ruled by māyā, a demon-architect skilled in sorcery, who created the magical city of Tripura.
  5. Mahātala-loka – Region of the nāgas (many hooded serpents), sons of kadru (called krodhavaśa), Kuhaka, Takshaka, Kaliya and Sushena along with their families.
  6. Rasātala-loka – Region at the sole of the feet of Viṣṇu where dānavas and daityas reside.
  7. Pātāla-loka – Region of Vāsuki, who is the snake that adorns Śiva.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11, viśvarūpadarśana-yoga.

Comments on brahmāṇḍa or hiraṇyagarbha.

The etymology of the two Sanskrit words Viṣṇu and Brahma are as follows:

  • Viṣṇu (Vis) means that which expands, thus corresponding to an expanding universe or increasing entropy in any system.
  • Brahma (Bṛh) means anything that is big or expanded, aṇḍa means egg. This corresponds to Brahmāṇḍa or Brahma’s-egg.
Decoding the various realms (loka).

It is clear that the description contains two aspects, a material aspect of the Universe intertwined with a metaphysical aspect of Yoga. While the seven constituents of ūrdhva-loka are obviously related to the physical and metaphysical Universe in their gross and subtle aspects, pātāla-loka seems to be more of a reflection of the realm inside ourselves. This can be seen from the allusion to the ṣaḍ-ripu (six poisons) that are clearly indicated in the representation of the regions. The alignment of the pātāla-lokas to the cakras on the spinal column is an assumption and not substantiated by evidence.

Going from first principles that everything is a weave of puruṣa (experiencer or primordial Identity) with prakṛti (manifestation of Identity), we can close out the first (satya-loka), last (pātāla-loka) and middle realms (bhūr-loka or Earth) as follows,

  • Satya-loka is the realm of Truth and equivalent to Brahman, so it is a state of nirguṇa-brahman, where puruṣa experiences itself, but does not manifest. It is a state of Truth, infinite peace or pure consciousness where manifestation (prakṛti) is in nirguṇa.
  • Pātāla-loka is at the opposite end of the spectrum. Vāsuki is a serpent that is in a state of material rest or pure puruṣa or null, which means prakṛti is in nirguṇa state here also. This is also a state of nirguṇa-brahman or pure infinite peace or zero-state-puruṣa.
  • Bhūr-loka or Earth is where puruṣa and prakṛti are playing out māyā in all its states of consciousness and attributes (guṇa).
  • Importantly, the movement into the ūrdhva-lokas seems to be one of mix of electromagnetic as well as metaphysical realms, while the pātāla-loka seems to be intrinsic to the Self.
  • In terms of creation, all inhabitants of brahmāṇḍa are progeny of brahmā, whether they inhabit ūrdhva-loka or pātāla-loka, other than the maharṣis (seers) who inhibit mahar-loka whose origin seems to be indeterminate, so one has to assume that they come directly from

Let us look at the pair or regions on opposite sides of the Earth (bhūr-loka). Since bhūr-loka is the seventh region, there will be one more on the pātāla-loka side.

  • Bhuvar-loka and atala-loka.
    • In bhuvar-loka, which is the Earth’s atmosphere, there is only space. So, puruṣa experiences reduced consciousness because there is no material transaction. Prakṛti manifests predominantly as rajoguṇa, as magnetic energy where consciousness of puruṣa is still fixed by its relationship with the Earth. Meanwhile, prakṛti has begun shedding tamoguṇa and is manifesting as rajoguṇa.
    • Similarly, in atala-loka, Identity (puruṣa) experiences contraction because it is transacting with fewer souls (jīva), while prakṛti has become more tāmasika.
    • This slide of prakṛti to tamas can be derived from the allegorical vision that Bāla yawns to create three types of women. Yawning is indicative of puruṣa experiencing lethargy. Also, allusion to sexual preference of women is indicative of restless boredom (tamas) of prakṛti and sexual desires (kāma) in puruṣa.
  • Suvar-loka and vitala-loka.
    • Suvar-loka is clearly the Solar system. Why is this important?
    • Earth has a magnetic field; all creatures on Earth exhibit some form of electrical conductivity.
    • Similarly, each of the other planets in the Solar system also have magnetic fields.
    • Additionally, planets affect each other’s magnetic fields depending on their orbits, size and inter-planet distance with respect to each other. For example, we know that the Moon influences tides on Earth depending on whether it is waxing or waning. We also know that the Human body comprises 75% water. Imagine the impact a waxing or waning Moon on the Human body due to change in flow of electrolytes. If the Moon can influence us and our reactions, then what about other planets? Does it not stand to reason that large entities such as Sun, Saturn and Jupiter will impact Human state of experience in some form? This is suvar-loka, where experience is created.
    • Vitala-loka is where gold is created.
    • Gold is prized because it is one of the most stable metals. It does not decay or tarnish and it is classified as a diamagnetic material (one that is not magnetic).
    • So, while puruṣa in suvar-loka experiences increased sattvaguṇa and reduced rajoguṇa, in vitala-loka, puruṣa experiences wealth and greed (lobha), a tamoguṇa of prakṛti.
  • The pairing of mahar-loka and sutala-loka is almost prophetic. 
    • Mahar-loka is the place where maharṣis or Great Seer’s reside. What is the role of these maharṣis?
    • Let us look at the first principles of action (karma). There are four types of karma,
      • agami-karma (karma that which is currently getting created),
      • prārabdha-karma (karma that has come up for reconciliation),
      • sañcita-karma (overall karma available with any entity),
      • samaṣṭi-karma (karma that affects all creation on account of a macro event such as earthquake, eclipse, cyclone, monsoon, epidemic etc.).
    • How is sañcita-karma transferred to prārabdha-karma? Obviously, the number of entities that a person interacts with in life are too many for easy reconciliation. Hence, resolution of debt between entities needs to be orchestrated. This is done by entities that have requisite control over prāṇa (creative force) called maharṣis at mahar-loka who also manage samaṣṭi-karma (macro-action which overrides all individual action).
    • Once, the reconciliation parameters of karma are fixed, these are then coded into the movement of the planets in the suvar-loka so that the magnetic and gravitational forces influence decision making on bhūr-loka as existence.
    • On the pātāla-loka side,sutala-loka is created by Vishwakarma, a celestial architect and ruled by Bali Chakravarti, a Regent who was just and virtuous. Hence, on the face of it, its position in nether-world does not make sense.
    • However, let us look at the transformation of Bali Chakravarti. He conducted a sacrifice (yajña), which was officiated by Śukrācārya (the Guru of asuras and member of mahar-loka because he is the governing principle of Planet Venus). Śukrācārya recognised Viṣṇu in vāmana form and warned Bali, but Bali ignored the warning and ended up sacrificing himself to Viṣṇu.
    • The realm of sutala-loka is one where puruṣa experiences stubbornness and pride (mada), even to the extent of not being able to cognise the advice of one’s well-wishers. This is a tamoguṇa of prakṛti.
  • Jana-loka and talātala-loka
    • Jana-loka is inhabited by the sons of Brahmā (prajāpati) and a natural progression of mahar-loka. For the maharṣis to rearrange prārabdha-karma and samaṣṭi-karma, there must be a higher architectural hierarchy where control of mahar-loka is exerted.
    • For example, a computer needs a motherboard (jana-loka) on which an operating system (mahar-loka) is loaded so that programmes can be run (bhuvar-loka) for specific situations (bhūr-loka).
    • Jana-loka is a hierarchically the highest level in terms of creation management or
    • At the opposite end, talātala-loka is a city created by sorcery.
    • Talātala-loka was created by māyāsura, a brilliant architect to protect the city of Tripura from destruction.
    • The city consisted of three fortresses, all mobile but connected such that they come into confluence only on a particular day.
    • On the day of confluence, the city was destroyed by Śiva (tamoguṇa) using Vāsuki (who lives in pātāla-loka) as the missile.
    • Talātala-loka is the realm where puruṣa experiences moha (delusion), a tamoguṇa of prakṛti.
  • Tapaḥ-loka and mahātala-loka
    • Tapaḥ is austerity. Austerity comes from sacrifice (yajña).
    • Primordial sacrifice (ādiyajña) is Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This is the realm from where puruṣa and prakṛti emerge to start creation. It is the starting point of saguṇa-brahman, paramātmā, īśvara, Viṣṇu and Śrī Kṛṣṇa
    • On the other side, mahātala is the realm of krodhavaśa (power of anger), daughter of Dākṣa, wife of Kāśyapa and mother of asuras.
    • It is inhabited by nāgas, who are known for their short temper. This is the realm where puruṣa experiences anger (krodha), which is a tamoguṇa of prakṛti.
  • Rasātala-loka – this is the region where daityas and dānavas reside and located at the sole of Viṣṇu, thus representing the other end of Brahmāṇḍa or hiraṇyagarbha.
    • Rasātala means “region of essence”. The root of all ṣaḍ-ripu (six treacherous qualities) is identification of the Self with the environment. The problems start with comparison of oneself with others which results in envy (mātsaryam) which is the root of all other afflictions.
    • Interestingly, all the inhabitants in talātala-loka, starting from atala-loka until rasātala-loka, are descendants of Dākṣa, who was also created by Brahmā. So, rasātala-loka represents the other end of jana-loka.
  • Talātala-loka – This is the region inhabited by Vāsuki who adorns Śiva, and his sister Manasā (cognition). Here puruṣa is in Śiva or nirguṇa state, the state of null or pure

Śrīmad-bhāgavad-purāṇa on evolution of cosmic architecture (mahat).

  • Śrīmad-bhāgavad-purāṇa (2.5.21 onwards) – The evolution of knowledge is minutely explained. It starts with Viṣṇu creating the universe for its own pleasure (this can also be interpreted as experience of a loss of Identity which made Viṣṇu manifest to seek confirmation of Identity), the onset of time, karma and svabhāva.
  • Verse 23-24 – Creation of mahat (concept of cosmic architecture) is achieved by application of attributes (guṇa). This results in creation of matter (tamas), wisdom or balance (sattva) and work or effort or energy (kriyā). There is formation of ahaṃkāra (sense of doer-ship), which is another representation of attributes. This occurs in the form of vaikharika (that which is modulated or harmonic) which is a sāttvika outcome, taijasa (effulgent or manifesting power and drive) which is rājasika and tāmasika (lethargic or delusional) which is manifestation of tamas.
  • Verse 25 onwardsahaṃkāra is the origin of the five primordial elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether). Sound also emanates from ahaṃkāra and provides evidence of existence to the subject (seer) and object (seen). For example – when someone exclaims “the light has turned green, it signifies a change in state. This is through use of sound (śabda). From ether comes air (whose svabhāva or character is sound, vitality, energy, zeal and strength). From air comes fire, with characteristics of quality of colour, sound and touch. From fire came water with added character of taste in addition to sound, touch and colour. From water emerged earth with added character of smell. 
  • Verse 30 onwards – From the mix of the above elements emerged cognition and the 10 kinetic and cognitive senses. But all this creation just kept growing without any motility in the form of an egg (hiraṇyagarbha). But, once Brahman gave it life, puruṣa burst forth from hiraṇyagarbha and emerged, with seven higher regions above the waist and seven regions below the waist.
  • Verse 37 – Brahmins represent the mouth, kṣtriyas represent the arms, vaiśyas represent the thighs and śūdras, the feet. This seems to conform to the traditional occupation of brāhmaṇas being teachers and priests requiring the mouth, kṣtriyas being warriors requiring strong arms, vaiśyas being business people requiring to travel and śūdras being workers represented by the feet.
    • Waist upwards – bhuvar-loka is the navel, suvar-loka is the heart, mahar-loka is the breast, jana-loka is the neck, tapo-loka is the crown and satya-loka is the head.
    • Earth (bhūr-loka) is not specified, but the region between the navel and thigh is the hips. This region houses the genitals and this the pelvic area is the crossover from motivation to movement, thus all the three attributes get located here. Deep and subtle allegory are embedded in these verses.
    • Going downwards- atala-loka is the waist, vitala-loka is the thighs, sutala-loka is the knees, talātala-loka is the shanks, mahātala-loka is the ankles, rasātala-loka is the feet and pātāla-loka is the sole.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11, viśvarūpadarśana-yoga.

The Soul (ātman) and rebirth.

It’s only natural that one should wonder what happens to the Soul (ātman) after death. Some aspects that need to be considered are,

  • In sanātana-dharma, there is no death. The Soul (ātman), moves out of the body once its prārabdha-karma has been exhausted.
  • The Soul (ātman) remains unchanged through each of these births and the embodiment of the Soul (ātman) that has in experiencing this life is called jīva.
  • When the person dies, the jīva does not die, but continues experiencing (puruṣa) and adding karma (action) due to its experiencing of duality (like-dislike, attraction-repulsion, good-bad etc.).
  • Physically, respiration stops, the person dies and the jīva leaves the body with prāṇa (motility). The body is disposed and reverts to its primordial elements. The prāṇa in this situation is the udāna-vāyu (upward flowing motility).
  • The jīva in this form is called preta (that which has gone to the other world). At this time, the jīva is disoriented after having lost the body that it was used to and having experienced the brutality of death.
  • Para-loka-vidyā espouses that the jīva does not wait for reconciliation, but moves to another body immediately. This contradicts the principle espoused by Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Chapter 8, 9 and other chapters, where he says that a person gets what he or she sows, which means that the process of rebirth is a clearly mapped reconciliation process.
  • Let us look at the following quote from Chāndogya-upaniṣad – “Having become cloud he rains down. Then he is born as rice, corn, herbs, tree, sesamum and beans. From them the escape is beset with most difficulties. For, whoever the person may be who eats the food and begets offspring, he henceforth becomes like unto them.” (Chāndogya-upaniṣad: 10.5).
  • How can reconciliation happen if the jīva moves immediately to another body after expiration? There is simply no opportunity for all the players with whom one has debts (ṛṇa), to be available for prārabdha-karma to be reconciled.
  • Another contradiction is the prevalence of other realms (lokas) such as abode of Yama (yama-loka), abode of the ancestors (pitṛ-loka), brahma-loka, candra-loka in the various purāṇas such as Nāradīya-purāṇa etc. How can these realms exist outside of Viṣṇu since Śrī Kṛṣṇa says that everything is embedded in the Brahmāṇḍa. Again, this confusion needs to be resolved.
  • Obviously, there is a great deal of confusion and reconciliation required. However, it is entirely possible that the ancient texts are using different terminologies to describe creation and re-creation. Also, it is possible that since the journey of Souls (ātman) is a subtle one, one needs greater perception of the subtle aspects of prāṇa to decipher the Truth.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11, viśvarūpadarśana-yoga.

Some contradictions to accepted positions.

  • There is a discernible degree of confluence between the ancient texts on the origin of matter and the Universe and science. The confusion arises in the interpretation and reconciliation of points of convergence and divergence.
  • An important conclusion is that all creation comes from one source, whether it is good, bad or indifferent, matter or energy. This is illusion (māyā) and the only thing outside this egg of matter (hiraṇyagarbha) is Brahman.
  • Pātāla-loka’s seems to represent ṣaḍ-ripu (six deluders) which cover all aspects of tamoguna of prakṛti. Hence, it might be interpreted as aspects within the Self which prevent a person from achieving the design potential of becoming sthita-prajña (a person of steady awareness).
  • The kuṇḍlinī is also a serpent that rests in null position until she emerges to move up from Brahmadvāra (door of Brahma) to Brahmāṇḍa (opening of Brahma). The kuṇḍlinī, a serpent, is śakti. When she merges with Śiva, there is merger with Śiva. Clearly, ancient Indian mythology is metaphysical and needs to be understood in the architectural framework of Yoga. So, it is possible that the pātāla-loka might be allegorically associated with the cakras and kuṇḍlinī.
  • There are some differences between the different ancient texts and their various interpretations. For example, Śrīmad-bhāgavad-purāṇa suggests that prakṛti was creating matter by itself but it burst out of its egg only when Brahman provided the motility in the form of puruṣa. Then, creation burst out of the egg as Viṣṇu. In essence, it does not violate my hypothesis that puruṣa and prakṛti weave together to create materiality. Another, aspect is whether the egg, after the manifestation of Viṣṇu, remained an egg or just remained as Viṣṇu. The argument is irrelevant because we do know that the Universe expands and the expanding boundary can be referred to as the perimeter of hiraṇyagarbha.
  • Additionally, there is some confusion on the journey of souls (ātman) after expiration, but the subject is too vast and different, thus requiring greater research.

School of Yoga explains Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11, viśvarūpadarśana-yoga.

Lessons learned in Chapter 11.

  • Śrī Kṛṣṇa is a manifestable state that controls creation and maintenance but does not participate in the operations.
  • From the description of Arjuna’s vision, one can conclude that birth, living and death is brutal and without sentiment. So, one must stop attaching sentiment to action (like-dislike, good-bad, right-wrong etc.).

The transliteration and translation of Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā, chapter 11 follows.

The Sanskrit diacritic words are in red italics.

अर्जुन उवाच –

मदनुग्रहाय परमं गुह्यमध्यात्मसंज्ञितम् ।

यत्त्वयोक्तं वचस्तेन मोहोऽयं विगतो मम ॥ ११-१॥

भवाप्ययौ हि भूतानां श्रुतौ विस्तरशो मया ।

त्वत्तः कमलपत्राक्ष माहात्म्यमपि चाव्ययम् ॥ ११-२॥

Arjuna said (1-2) Out of compassion for me (madanugrahāya) this supreme secret called adhyātma (paramaṃ guhyamadhyātmasaṃjñitam ।) which you have spoken, by that word this delusion has left me (yattvayoktaṃ vacastena moho’yaṃ vigato mama ॥ 11-1॥). Indeed, creation and dissolution of beings I have heard in great detail (bhavāpyayau hi bhūtānāṃ śrutau vistaraśo mayā ।), from you, O Lotus-eyed, also supreme soul and imperishable (tvattaḥ kamalapatrākṣa māhātmyamapi cāvyayam ॥ 11-2॥).

एवमेतद्यथात्थ त्वमात्मानं परमेश्वर ।

द्रष्टुमिच्छामि ते रूपमैश्वरं पुरुषोत्तम ॥ ११-३॥

मन्यसे यदि तच्छक्यं मया द्रष्टुमिति प्रभो ।

योगेश्वर ततो मे त्वं दर्शयात्मानमव्ययम् ॥ ११-४॥

(3-4) Thus, this you have declared yourself to be the Supreme Soul (evametadyathāttha tvamātmānaṃ parameśvara ।), I wish to see you in your Sovereign Supreme Self form (draṣṭumicchāmi te rūpamaiśvaraṃ puruṣottama ॥ 11-3॥). If you think that is possible for me to see it, O Lord! (manyase yadi tacchakyaṃ mayā draṣṭumiti prabho ।), O Lord of Yogīs, then show me your imperishable Self (yogeśvara tato me tvaṃ darśayātmānamavyayam ॥ 11-4॥).

श्रीभगवानुवाच –

पश्य मे पार्थ रूपाणि शतशोऽथ सहस्रशः ।

नानाविधानि दिव्यानि नानावर्णाकृतीनि च ॥ ११-५॥

पश्यादित्यान्वसून्रुद्रानश्विनौ मरुतस्तथा ।

बहून्यदृष्टपूर्वाणि पश्याश्चर्याणि भारत ॥ ११-६॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said (5-6) Behold my forms by the hundreds and thousands (paśya me pārtha rūpāṇi śataśo’tha sahasraśaḥ ।) of different divine types, different colours and shapes (nānāvidhāni divyāni nānāvarṇākṛtīni ca ॥ 11-5॥). Behold Ādityas, Vasus, Rudraas, Aśvinis, Maruts, also, (paśyādityānvasūnrudrānaśvinau marutastathā ।), many previously unseen wonders (bahūnyadṛṣṭapūrvāṇi paśyāścaryāṇi bhārata ॥ 11-6॥).

इहैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं पश्याद्य सचराचरम् ।

मम देहे गुडाकेश यच्चान्यद् द्रष्टुमिच्छसि ॥ ११-७॥

न तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुमनेनैव स्वचक्षुषा ।

दिव्यं ददामि ते चक्षुः पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् ॥ ११-८॥

(7-8) Here, behold, centred in one place, the whole universe (ihaikasthaṃ jagatkṛtsnaṃ), now moving-unmoving (paśyādya sacarācaram ।), in my body, that and other visions you with to see (mama dehe guḍākeśa yaccānyad draṣṭumicchasi ॥ 11-7॥). But you cannot see me even with these eyes of yours (na tu māṃ śakyase draṣṭumanenaiva svacakṣuṣā ।), I give you divine vision to behold my Powerful Yoga (divyaṃ dadāmi te cakṣuḥ paśya me yogamaiśvaram ॥ 11-8॥).

सञ्जय उवाच –

एवमुक्त्वा ततो राजन्महायोगेश्वरो हरिः ।

दर्शयामास पार्थाय परमं रूपमैश्वरम् ॥ ११-९॥

अनेकवक्त्रनयनमनेकाद्भुतदर्शनम् ।

अनेकदिव्याभरणं दिव्यानेकोद्यतायुधम् ॥ ११-१०॥

Sañjaya said (9-10) Rāja (Dṛtarāṣṭra), having thus spoken, the Great Yogī Hari, (evamuktvā tato rājanmahāyogeśvaro hariḥ ।) showed Partha the Supreme Sovereign form (darśayāmāsa pārthāya paramaṃ rūpamaiśvaram ॥ 11-9॥). With multiple muzzles and eyes, numerous unique visions (anekavaktranayanamanekādbhutadarśanam ।), with multiple divine ornaments (anekadivyābharaṇaṃ), many divine weapons lifted (divyānekodyatāyudham ॥ 11-10॥).

दिव्यमाल्याम्बरधरं दिव्यगन्धानुलेपनम् ।

सर्वाश्चर्यमयं देवमनन्तं विश्वतोमुखम् ॥ ११-११॥

दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता ।

यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥ ११-१२॥

(11-12) Wearing divine apparel and garlands (divyamālyāmbaradharaṃ) anointed with divine scents (divyagandhānulepanam ।), everywhere astonishing visions (sarvāścaryamayaṃ), divine endless faces on all sides (devamanantaṃ viśvatomukham ॥ 11-11॥). In a sky a thousand Suns were rising simultaneously (divi sūryasahasrasya bhavedyugapadutthitā ।), If splendour like that were possible, such would be of a mighty Soul (yadi bhāḥ sadṛśī sā syādbhāsastasya mahātmanaḥ ॥ 11-12॥).

तत्रैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं प्रविभक्तमनेकधा ।

अपश्यद्देवदेवस्य शरीरे पाण्डवस्तदा ॥ ११-१३॥

ततः स विस्मयाविष्टो हृष्टरोमा धनञ्जयः ।

प्रणम्य शिरसा देवं कृताञ्जलिरभाषत ॥ ११-१४॥

(13-14) There, in one place, the whole universe divided in many parts (tatraikasthaṃ jagatkṛtsnaṃ pravibhaktamanekadhā ।) Pandava saw then in the body of the God of Gods (apaśyaddevadevasya śarīre pāṇḍavastadā ॥ 11-13॥). Then he, filled with wonder, hair standing on end, Arjuna prostrated the Daiva with joined hands and spoke (tataḥ sa vismayāviṣṭo hṛṣṭaromā dhanañjayaḥ । praṇamya śirasā devaṃ kṛtāñjalirabhāṣata ॥ 11-14॥).

अर्जुन उवाच –

पश्यामि देवांस्तव देव देहे

        सर्वांस्तथा भूतविशेषसङ्घान् ।

ब्रह्माणमीशं कमलासनस्थ-

        मृषींश्च सर्वानुरगांश्च दिव्यान् ॥ ११-१५॥


        पश्यामि त्वां सर्वतोऽनन्तरूपम् ।

नान्तं न मध्यं न पुनस्तवादिं

        पश्यामि विश्वेश्वर  विश्वरूप ॥ ११-१६॥

Arjuna said (15-16) I see all deities in your divine body (paśyāmi devāṃstava deva dehe), also communities of various types of creatures (sarvāṃstathā bhūtaviśeṣasaṅghān ।), Lord Brahmā seated on a Lotus (brahmāṇamīśaṃ kamalāsanastha), Ṛṣis and all types of divine serpents (mṛṣīṃśca sarvānuragāṃśca divyān ॥ 11-15॥). I see many arms, stomachs, mouths and eyes in every part of your endless body (anekabāhūdaravaktranetraṃ-  paśyāmi tvāṃ sarvato’nantarūpam ।), I can see no end, no middle, not even you’re beginning in your Universal form, Viśveśvara (nāntaṃ na madhyaṃ na punastavādiṃ-paśyāmi viśveśvara  viśvarūpa ॥ 11-16॥).

किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रिणं च

        तेजोराशिं सर्वतो दीप्तिमन्तम् ।

पश्यामि त्वां दुर्निरीक्ष्यं समन्ताद्

        दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिमप्रमेयम् ॥ ११-१७॥

त्वमक्षरं परमं वेदितव्यं

        त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम् ।

त्वमव्ययः शाश्वतधर्मगोप्ता

        सनातनस्त्वं पुरुषो मतो मे ॥ ११-१८॥

(17-18) Decorated with a diadem, club, discuss and filled with radiance everywhere and shining (kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca-  tejorāśiṃ sarvato dīptimantam ।), I see you very hard to look at all around blazing hot like the immeasurable Sun (paśyāmi tvāṃ durnirīkṣyaṃ samantād-dīptānalārkadyutimaprameyam ॥ 11-17॥). You are Supreme Indestructible worthy of cognisance (tvamakṣaraṃ paramaṃ veditavyaṃ), you are the Supreme Universal treasure house (tvamasya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam ।), you are imperishable, the eternal preserver of Dharma (tvamavyayaḥ śāśvatadharmagoptā) that is universal, I think that you are puruṣa (sanātanastvaṃ puruṣo mato me ॥ 11-18॥).


        मनन्तबाहुं शशिसूर्यनेत्रम् ।

पश्यामि त्वां दीप्तहुताशवक्त्रं

        स्वतेजसा विश्वमिदं तपन्तम् ॥ ११-१९॥

द्यावापृथिव्योरिदमन्तरं हि

        व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन दिशश्च सर्वाः ।

दृष्ट्वाद्भुतं रूपमुग्रं तवेदं

        लोकत्रयं प्रव्यथितं महात्मन् ॥ ११-२०॥

(19-20) Without beginning, middle or end, of infinite virility, having infinite arms, having the Sun and Moon for eyes (anādimadhyāntamanantavīrya manantabāhuṃ śaśisūryanetram ।), I see you with flaming mouth, your own radiance heating this universe (paśyāmi tvāṃ dīptahutāśavaktraṃ svatejasā viśvamidaṃ tapantam ॥ 11-19॥). Indeed, all quarters and interspace of this Earth and Heavens are filled by you alone (dyāvāpṛthivyoridamantaraṃ hi vyāptaṃ tvayaikena diśaśca sarvāḥ ।), I am seeing this unique ferocious form of yours with the three worlds trembling in fear, Great Soul (dṛṣṭvādbhutaṃ rūpamugraṃ tavedaṃ lokatrayaṃ pravyathitaṃ mahātman ॥ 11-20॥).

अमी हि त्वां सुरसङ्घा विशन्ति

        केचिद्भीताः प्राञ्जलयो गृणन्ति ।

स्वस्तीत्युक्त्वा महर्षिसिद्धसङ्घाः

        स्तुवन्ति त्वां स्तुतिभिः पुष्कलाभिः ॥ ११-२१॥

रुद्रादित्या वसवो ये च साध्या

        विश्वेऽश्विनौ मरुतश्चोष्मपाश्च ।


        वीक्षन्ते त्वां विस्मिताश्चैव सर्वे ॥ ११-२२॥

(21-22) In fact, communities of Devas enter you, some in fear, with joined palms, after uttering a prayer that all may be well (amī hi tvāṃ surasaṅghā viśanti-kecidbhītāḥ prāñjalayo gṛṇanti । svastītyuktvā), communities or seers and sages praise you glorifying hyms (maharṣisiddhasaṅghāḥ stuvanti tvāṃ stutibhiḥ puṣkalābhiḥ ॥ 11-21॥). The Rudras, ādityas, Vasus, and Sādhyās, Viśvadevas, Aśvinis, Maruts, and Pitrus, also communities of Gandharva, Yakṣa, Asura, Siddhas, and all others look at you in astonishment (rudrādityā vasavo ye ca sādhyā viśve’śvinau marutaścoṣmapāśca । gandharvayakṣāsurasiddhasaṅghā- vīkṣante tvāṃ vismitāścaiva sarve ॥ 11-22॥).

रूपं महत्ते बहुवक्त्रनेत्रं

        महाबाहो बहुबाहूरुपादम् ।

बहूदरं बहुदंष्ट्राकरालं

        दृष्ट्वा लोकाः प्रव्यथितास्तथाहम् ॥ ११-२३॥

नभःस्पृशं दीप्तमनेकवर्णं

        व्यात्ताननं दीप्तविशालनेत्रम् ।

दृष्ट्वा हि त्वां प्रव्यथितान्तरात्मा

        धृतिं न विन्दामि शमं च विष्णो ॥ ११-२४॥

(23-24) Your form is huge with multiple mouths and eyes, many arms, thighs and feet (rūpaṃ mahatte bahuvaktranetraṃ- mahābāho bahubāhūrupādam ।), many stomachs, fearful with multiple tusks, seeing this world, I am indeed distressed (bahūdaraṃ bahudaṃṣṭrākarālaṃ- dṛṣṭvā lokāḥ pravyathitāstathāham ॥ 11-23॥). Touching the sky, blazing in many colours, with mouths wide open, with inflamed large eyes (nabhaḥspṛśaṃ dīptamanekavarṇaṃ- vyāttānanaṃ dīptaviśālanetram ।), having seen the true you, I am terrified within my soul, lose my courage and find no peace, Vishno! (dṛṣṭvā hi tvāṃ pravyathitāntarātmā- dhṛtiṃ na vindāmi śamaṃ ca viṣṇo ॥ 11-24॥).

दंष्ट्राकरालानि च ते मुखानि

        दृष्ट्वैव कालानलसन्निभानि ।

दिशो न जाने न लभे च शर्म

        प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास ॥ ११-२५॥

अमी च त्वां धृतराष्ट्रस्य पुत्राः

        सर्वे सहैवावनिपालसङ्घैः ।

भीष्मो द्रोणः सूतपुत्रस्तथासौ

        सहास्मदीयैरपि योधमुख्यैः ॥ ११-२६॥

वक्त्राणि ते त्वरमाणा विशन्ति

        दंष्ट्राकरालानि भयानकानि ।

केचिद्विलग्ना दशनान्तरेषु

        सन्दृश्यन्ते चूर्णितैरुत्तमाङ्गैः ॥ ११-२७॥

(25-27) Having seen your mouth with terrifying tusks and blazing like pralaya fires (daṃṣṭrākarālāni ca te mukhāni- dṛṣṭvaiva kālānalasannibhāni ।), I lose orientation, purpose and am unable to be calm. Have mercy, Lord of the Devas in whom the Universe resides (diśo na jāne na labhe ca śarma-  prasīda deveśa jagannivāsa ॥ 11-25॥). These and all the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, along groups of kings, Bhīṣma, Droṇa, Sūtaputra, also with warrior chiefs from our side (amī ca tvāṃ dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrāḥ- sarve sahaivāvanipālasaṅghaiḥ । bhīṣmo droṇaḥ sūtaputrastathāsau- sahāsmadīyairapi yodhamukhyaiḥ ॥ 11-26॥). They hurry and enter your terrible toothed mouth that is fear inspiring, some are seen sticking between the teeth, their heads crushed to powder (vaktrāṇi te tvaramāṇā viśanti-  daṃṣṭrākarālāni bhayānakāni । kecidvilagnā daśanāntareṣu- sandṛśyante cūrṇitairuttamāṅgaiḥ ॥ 11-27॥).

यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः

        समुद्रमेवाभिमुखा द्रवन्ति ।

तथा तवामी नरलोकवीरा

        विशन्ति वक्त्राण्यभिविज्वलन्ति ॥ ११-२८॥

यथा प्रदीप्तं ज्वलनं पतङ्गा

        विशन्ति नाशाय समृद्धवेगाः ।

तथैव नाशाय विशन्ति लोका-

        स्तवापि वक्त्राणि समृद्धवेगाः ॥ ११-२९॥

(28-29) Just as torrents of many rivers are truly directed towards the sea (yathā nadīnāṃ bahavo’mbuvegāḥ samudramevābhimukhā dravanti ।), similarly, these worldly heroes enter your flaming mouths (tathā tavāmī naralokavīrā viśanti vaktrāṇyabhivijvalanti ॥ 11-28॥). Just as moths enter a blazing fire to destruction with increased speed (yathā pradīptaṃ jvalanaṃ pataṅgā viśanti nāśāya samṛddhavegāḥ ।), similarly earthlings also enter your mouths with increased speed only (tathaiva nāśāya viśanti lokā  stavāpi vaktrāṇi samṛddhavegāḥ ॥ 11-29॥).

लेलिह्यसे ग्रसमानः समन्ताल्-

        लोकान्समग्रान्वदनैर्ज्वलद्भिः ।

तेजोभिरापूर्य जगत्समग्रं

        भासस्तवोग्राः प्रतपन्ति विष्णो ॥ ११-३०॥

आख्याहि मे को भवानुग्ररूपो

        नमोऽस्तु ते देववर प्रसीद ।

विज्ञातुमिच्छामि भवन्तमाद्यं

        न हि प्रजानामि तव प्रवृत्तिम् ॥ ११-३१॥

(30-31) Frequently licking you swallow all in every side of the world with flaming mouths, (lelihyase grasamānaḥ samantāl lokānsamagrānvadanairjvaladbhiḥ ।), your fierce radiant brightness fills the whole universe by its heat, Viṣṇu (tejobhirāpūrya jagatsamagraṃ- bhāsastavogrāḥ pratapanti viṣṇo ॥ 11-30॥). Tell me who you are, I salute your fearsome form, supreme deity, show mercy (ākhyāhi me ko bhavānugrarūpo-  namo’stu te devavara prasīda ।), I wish to know your primal state, indeed I cannot understand your purpose (vijñātumicchāmi bhavantamādyaṃ- na hi prajānāmi tava pravṛttim ॥ 11-31॥).

श्रीभगवानुवाच –

कालोऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो

        लोकान्समाहर्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः ।

ऋतेऽपि त्वां न भविष्यन्ति सर्वे

        येऽवस्थिताः प्रत्यनीकेषु योधाः ॥ ११-३२॥

तस्मात्त्वमुत्तिष्ठ यशो लभस्व

        जित्वा शत्रून् भुङ्क्ष्व राज्यं समृद्धम् ।

मयैवैते निहताः पूर्वमेव

        निमित्तमात्रं भव सव्यसाचिन् ॥ ११-३३॥

द्रोणं च भीष्मं च जयद्रथं च

        कर्णं तथान्यानपि योधवीरान् ।

मया हतांस्त्वं जहि मा व्यथिष्ठा

        युध्यस्व जेतासि रणे सपत्नान् ॥ ११-३४॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa replies (32-34) I am the mighty world destroying Time, now destroying the world (kālo’smi lokakṣayakṛtpravṛddho lokānsamāhartumiha pravṛttaḥ ।), even without you none of the entire arrayed hostile armies shall live (ṛte’pi tvāṃ na bhaviṣyanti sarve ye’vasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu yodhāḥ ॥ 11-32॥). Therefore, stand up and achieve fame of having conquered your enemies and enjoy unparalleled power (tasmāttvamuttiṣṭha yaśo labhasva jitvā śatrūn bhuṅkṣva rājyaṃ samṛddham ।), these have already been killed by me, you will be a mere instrument, left-handed one (mayaivaite nihatāḥ pūrvameva nimittamātraṃ bhava savyasācin ॥ 11-33॥). Drona and Bhishma and Jayadratha and Karna and other valiant warriors have been slain by me. Do not vacillate, fight and you shall conquer your opponents in battle (droṇaṃ ca bhīṣmaṃ ca jayadrathaṃ ca  karṇaṃ tathānyānapi yodhavīrān । mayā hatāṃstvaṃ jahi mā vyathiṣṭhā yudhyasva jetāsi raṇe sapatnān ॥ 11-34॥).

सञ्जय उवाच –

एतच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं केशवस्य

        कृताञ्जलिर्वेपमानः किरीटी ।

नमस्कृत्वा भूय एवाह कृष्णं

        सगद्गदं भीतभीतः प्रणम्य ॥ ११-३५॥

Sañjaya said (35) having heard Keśava’s speech, with joined palms, trembling, he with a diadem prostrated again and again, even addressed Kṛṣṇa in a choked voice overwhelmed with fear and deep respect (etacchrutvā vacanaṃ keśavasya- kṛtāñjalirvepamānaḥ kirīṭī । namaskṛtvā bhūya evāha kṛṣṇaṃ- sagadgadaṃ bhītabhītaḥ praṇamya ॥ 11-35॥).

अर्जुन उवाच –

स्थाने हृषीकेश तव प्रकीर्त्या

        जगत्प्रहृष्यत्यनुरज्यते च ।

रक्षांसि भीतानि दिशो द्रवन्ति

        सर्वे नमस्यन्ति च सिद्धसङ्घाः ॥ ११-३६॥

कस्माच्च ते न नमेरन्महात्मन्

        गरीयसे ब्रह्मणोऽप्यादिकर्त्रे ।

अनन्त देवेश जगन्निवास

        त्वमक्षरं सदसत्तत्परं यत् ॥ ११-३७॥

Arjuna said (36-37) In their place, Hṛṣīkeśa, in praising you, the world is delighted and rejoices and Rākṣasas are afraid and run everywhere and the entire community of Siddhas bow to you (sthāne hṛṣīkeśa tava prakīrtyā jagatprahṛṣyatyanurajyate ca । rakṣāṃsi bhītāni diśo dravanti sarve namasyanti ca siddhasaṅghāḥ ॥ 11-36॥). And why should they not, Great Soul, you are superior to Brahma also, the primal creator, infinite, Lord of the deities, abode of the Universe, you are the imperishable being, which is also the supreme non-being (kasmācca te na nameranmahātman garīyase brahmaṇo’pyādikartre । ananta deveśa jagannivāsa tvamakṣaraṃ sadasattatparaṃ yat ॥ 11-37॥).

त्वमादिदेवः पुरुषः पुराण-

        स्त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम् ।

वेत्तासि वेद्यं च परं च धाम

        त्वया ततं विश्वमनन्तरूप ॥ ११-३८॥

वायुर्यमोऽग्निर्वरुणः शशाङ्कः

        प्रजापतिस्त्वं प्रपितामहश्च ।

नमो नमस्तेऽस्तु सहस्रकृत्वः

        पुनश्च भूयोऽपि नमो नमस्ते ॥ ११-३९॥

नमः पुरस्तादथ पृष्ठतस्ते

        नमोऽस्तु ते सर्वत एव सर्व ।


        सर्वं समाप्नोषि ततोऽसि सर्वः ॥ ११-४०॥

(38-40) You are the primordial Deity, ancient puruṣa, you are Supreme refuge of this Universe, you know everything and are the supreme abode, and you pervade the Universe, you are of infinite forms (tvamādidevaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇa- stvamasya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam । vettāsi vedyaṃ ca paraṃ ca dhāma- tvayā tataṃ viśvamanantarūpa ॥ 11-38॥). You are Vāyu, Yama, Agni, Varuṇa, Moon, Prajāpati, you are the great-grandfather and a thousand salutations, salutations to you, again and again also, salutations, salutation to you (vāyuryamo’gnirvaruṇaḥ śaśāṅkaḥ prajāpatistvaṃ prapitāmahaśca । namo namaste’stu sahasrakṛtvaḥ punaśca bhūyo’pi namo namaste ॥ 11-39॥). Salutations in front also behind you, also do it on every side, even everywhere, encompassing all infinite virility, immeasurable power, you pervade everything, wherever there is anything (namaḥ purastādatha pṛṣṭhataste namo’stu te sarvata eva sarva । anantavīryāmitavikramastvaṃ sarvaṃ samāpnoṣi tato’si sarvaḥ ॥ 11-40॥).

सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तं

        हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति ।

अजानता महिमानं तवेदं

        मया प्रमादात्प्रणयेन वापि ॥ ११-४१॥


        विहारशय्यासनभोजनेषु ।

एकोऽथवाप्यच्युत तत्समक्षं

        तत्क्षामये त्वामहमप्रमेयम् ॥ ११-४२॥

(41-42) If I have been presumptuous in regarding you as a friend and saying “O Kṛṣṇa”, “O Yādava”, “O Companion”, these were due to ignorance of your greatness by me, from carelessness, even due to affection. (sakheti matvā prasabhaṃ yaduktaṃ he kṛṣṇa he yādava he sakheti । ajānatā mahimānaṃ tavedaṃ mayā pramādātpraṇayena vāpi ॥ 11-41॥). If and for the sake of in jest I have been disrespectful to you while at play, during rest, sitting or eating or when by myself, Achyuta, or in company, for this I ask your forgiveness without restraint (yaccāvahāsārthamasatkṛto’si vihāraśayyāsanabhojaneṣu । eko’thavāpyacyuta tatsamakṣaṃ tatkṣāmaye tvāmahamaprameyam ॥ 11-42॥).

पितासि लोकस्य चराचरस्य

        त्वमस्य पूज्यश्च गुरुर्गरीयान् ।

न त्वत्समोऽस्त्यभ्यधिकः कुतोऽन्यो

        लोकत्रयेऽप्यप्रतिमप्रभाव ॥ ११-४३॥

तस्मात्प्रणम्य प्रणिधाय कायं

        प्रसादये त्वामहमीशमीड्यम् ।

पितेव पुत्रस्य सखेव सख्युः

        प्रियः प्रियायार्हसि देव सोढुम् ॥ ११-४४॥

(43-44) You are the father of the people, of the moving and unmoving, thou are to be revered and Guru, none is weightier or equal to you. Where can anyone in the three worlds also of your unmatched prowess?  (pitāsi lokasya carācarasya tvamasya pūjyaśca gururgarīyān । na tvatsamo’styabhyadhikaḥ kuto’nyolokatraye’pyapratimaprabhāva ॥ 11-43॥). Therefore, having respectfully bowed the body, I propitiate you, the Lord who is adorable, like a father to a son, friend to a friend, like a beloved should to the beloved, bear me, my deity (tasmātpraṇamya praṇidhāya kāyaṃ prasādaye tvāmahamīśamīḍyam । piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyuḥ priyaḥ priyāyārhasi deva soḍhum ॥ 11-44॥).

अदृष्टपूर्वं हृषितोऽस्मि दृष्ट्वा

        भयेन च प्रव्यथितं मनो मे ।

तदेव मे दर्शय देव रूपं

        प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास ॥ ११-४५॥

किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तं

        इच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव ।

तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन

        सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते ॥ ११-४६॥

(45-46) I have delighted in what has never been seen, my cognition is frightened and distressed, show to me, my deity, that merciful form, Lord of deities, abode of the Universe (adṛṣṭapūrvaṃ hṛṣito’smi dṛṣṭvā bhayena ca pravyathitaṃ mano me । tadeva me darśaya deva rūpaṃ prasīda deveśa jagannivāsa ॥ 11-45॥). Crowned, bearing a mace, bearing a discuss in the hand, I wish to see you just as before, as the same four-armed form, instead of thousand-armed Universal form (kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakrahastaṃ  icchāmi tvāṃ draṣṭumahaṃ tathaiva । tenaiva rūpeṇa caturbhujena sahasrabāho bhava viśvamūrte ॥ 11-46॥).

श्रीभगवानुवाच –

मया प्रसन्नेन तवार्जुनेदं

        रूपं परं दर्शितमात्मयोगात् ।

तेजोमयं विश्वमनन्तमाद्यं

        यन्मे त्वदन्येन न दृष्टपूर्वम् ॥ ११-४७॥

न वेदयज्ञाध्ययनैर्न दानै-

        र्न च क्रियाभिर्न तपोभिरुग्रैः ।

एवंरूपः शक्य अहं नृलोके

        द्रष्टुं त्वदन्येन कुरुप्रवीर ॥ ११-४८॥

मा ते व्यथा मा च विमूढभावो

        दृष्ट्वा रूपं घोरमीदृङ्ममेदम् ।

व्यपेतभीः प्रीतमनाः पुनस्त्वं

        तदेव मे रूपमिदं प्रपश्य ॥ ११-४९॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said (47-49) I am pleased with you, so I showed you this Supreme form, by the Yoga of my soul, full of Universal splendour, endless, primordial, this that I have shown you has not been seen before (mayā prasannena tavārjunedaṃ rūpaṃ paraṃ darśitamātmayogāt । tejomayaṃ viśvamanantamādyaṃ yanme tvadanyena na dṛṣṭapūrvam ॥ 11-47॥). Not by the study of Vedas, yajña, not by gifts and not by actions either, nor by severe tapas either, such a form that I showed you, is possible to be seen by any other in the world of men (na vedayajñādhyayanairna dānai rna ca kriyābhirna tapobhirugraiḥ । evaṃrūpaḥ śakya ahaṃ nṛloke draṣṭuṃ tvadanyena kurupravīra ॥ 11-48॥). Be not alarmed, do not be perplexed by my form with qualities like this (mā te vyathā mā ca vimūḍhabhāvo- dṛṣṭvā rūpaṃ ghoramīdṛṅmamedam ।), with your fear dispelled, with peaceful cognition, again behold that form you truly had of me (vyapetabhīḥ prītamanāḥ punastvaṃ tadeva me rūpamidaṃ prapaśya ॥ 11-49॥). 

सञ्जय उवाच –

इत्यर्जुनं वासुदेवस्तथोक्त्वा

        स्वकं रूपं दर्शयामास भूयः ।

आश्वासयामास च भीतमेनं

        भूत्वा पुनः सौम्यवपुर्महात्मा ॥ ११-५०॥

Sañjaya said (50) Thus, to Arjuna, Vāsudeva, so having spoken, his own form showed again and consoled him who was terrified by becoming once again the pleasant bodied great soul. (ityarjunaṃ vāsudevastathoktvā- svakaṃ rūpaṃ darśayāmāsa bhūyaḥ । āśvāsayāmāsa ca bhītamenaṃ- bhūtvā punaḥ saumyavapurmahātmā ॥ 11-50॥).

 अर्जुन उवाच –

दृष्ट्वेदं मानुषं रूपं तव सौम्यं जनार्दन ।

इदानीमस्मि संवृत्तः सचेताः प्रकृतिं गतः ॥ ११-५१॥

Arjuna said (51) After seeing this gentle human form of yours, Janārdana, now I am composed in my consciousness and my normal nature is restored (dṛṣṭvedaṃ mānuṣaṃ rūpaṃ tava saumyaṃ janārdana । idānīmasmi saṃvṛttaḥ sacetāḥ prakṛtiṃ gataḥ ॥ 11-51॥).


सुदुर्दर्शमिदं रूपं दृष्टवानसि यन्मम ।

देवा अप्यस्य रूपस्य नित्यं दर्शनकाङ्क्षिणः ॥ ११-५२॥

नाहं वेदैर्न तपसा न दानेन न चेज्यया ।

शक्य एवंविधो द्रष्टुं दृष्टवानसि मां यथा ॥ ११-५३॥

भक्त्या त्वनन्यया शक्य अहमेवंविधोऽर्जुन ।

ज्ञातुं द्रष्टुं च तत्त्वेन प्रवेष्टुं च परन्तप ॥ ११-५४॥

मत्कर्मकृन्मत्परमो मद्भक्तः सङ्गवर्जितः ।

निर्वैरः सर्वभूतेषु यः स मामेति पाण्डव ॥ ११-५५॥

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said (52-55) Very hard to behold this form of mine you have seen (sudurdarśamidaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭavānasi yanmama ।), deities always desire to behold this form (devā apyasya rūpasya nityaṃ darśanakāṅkṣiṇaḥ ॥ 11-52॥). I am not accessible for vision as you have seen of me by Vedas, nor austerities, nor charities, nor sacrifices (nāhaṃ vedairna tapasā na dānena na cejyayā । śakya evaṃvidho draṣṭuṃ dṛṣṭavānasi māṃ yathā ॥ 11-53॥). By single minded devotion only can you cognise this form of mine, understand and experience the subtlety (bhaktyā tvananyayā śakya ahamevaṃvidho’rjuna । jñātuṃ draṣṭuṃ ca tattvena praveṣṭuṃ ca parantapa ॥ 11-54॥). Perform actions for me, regards me as Supreme, is devoted to me, is detached from society, without aggression (vaira= virility) to all creation, he who does this, comes to me (matkarmakṛnmatparamo madbhaktaḥ saṅgavarjitaḥ । nirvairaḥ sarvabhūteṣu yaḥ sa māmeti pāṇḍava ॥ 11-55॥).

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